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Archived Final Recommendation Statement

Breast Cancer: Screening, 2002

Originally published on: December 30, 2013

This recommendation statement is currently archived and inactive. It should be used for historical purposes only. Click here for copyright and source information .

Disclaimer:Recommendations made by the USPSTF are independent of the U.S. government. They should not be construed as an official position of the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality or the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.

Archived: Recommendation Summary

Summary of Recommendations

(What's This?)
Women, 40 and Older

The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommends screening mammography, with or without clinical breast examination (CBE), every 1-2 years for women aged 40 and older. 

All Women

The USPSTF concludes that the evidence is insufficient to recommend for or against routine CBE alone to screen for breast cancer. 

All Women

The USPSTF concludes that the evidence is insufficient to recommend for or against teaching or performing routine breast self-examination (BSE). 


Archived: Preface

This topic page summarizes the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) 2002 recommendations on screening for breast cancer.

Note: Please visit or the USPSTF's Electronic Preventive Services Selector (ePSS) at for the most current recommendation.

Archived: Clinical Considerations

  • The precise age at which the benefits from screening mammography justify the potential harms is a subjective judgment and should take into account patient preferences. Clinicians should inform women about the potential benefits (reduced chance of dying from breast cancer), potential harms (e.g., false-positive results, unnecessary biopsies), and limitations of the test that apply to women their age. Clinicians should tell women that the balance of benefits and potential harms of mammography improves with increasing age for women between the ages of 40 and 70.
  • Women who are at increased risk for breast cancer (e.g., those with a family history of breast cancer in a mother or sister, a previous breast biopsy revealing atypical hyperplasia, or first childbirth after age 30) are more likely to benefit from regular mammography than women at lower risk. The recommendation for women to begin routine screening in their 40s is strengthened by a family history of breast cancer having been diagnosed before menopause.
  • The USPSTF did not examine whether women should be screened for genetic mutations (e.g., BRCA1 and BRCA2) that increase the risk for developing breast cancer, or whether women with genetic mutations might benefit from earlier or more frequent screening for breast cancer.
  • In the trials that demonstrated the effectiveness of mammography in lowering breast cancer mortality, screening was performed every 12-33 months. For women aged 50 and older, there is little evidence to suggest that annual mammography is more effective than mammography done every other year. For women aged 40-49, available trials also have not reported a clear advantage of annual mammography over biennial mammography. Nevertheless, some experts recommend annual mammography based on the lower sensitivity of the test and on evidence that tumors grow more rapidly in this age group.
  • The precise age at which to discontinue screening mammography is uncertain. Only 2 randomized controlled trials enrolled women older than 69 and no trials enrolled women older than 74. Older women face a higher probability of developing and dying from breast cancer but also have a greater chance of dying from other causes. Women with comorbid conditions that limit their life expectancy are unlikely to benefit from screening.
  • Clinicians should refer patients to mammography screening centers with proper accreditation and quality assurance standards to ensure accurate imaging and radiographic interpretation. Clinicians should adopt office systems to ensure timely and adequate follow-up of abnormal results. A listing of accredited facilities is available at
  • Clinicians who advise women to perform BSE or who perform routine CBE to screen for breast cancer should understand that there is currently insufficient evidence to determine whether these practices affect breast cancer mortality, and that they are likely to increase the incidence of clinical assessments and biopsies.

Archived: Citation

This USPSTF recommendation was first published in: Ann Intern Med 2002; 137 (Part 1):344-346.

Current as of: September 2002

Internet Citation: Final Recommendation Statement: Breast Cancer: Screening, 2002. U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. June 2019.

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