Appendix I. Congressional Mandate Establishing the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force
Under Title IX of the Public Health Service Act, AHRQ is charged with enhancing the quality, appropriateness, and effectiveness of health care services and access to such services. AHRQ accomplishes these goals through scientific research and promotion of improvements in clinical practice, including prevention of diseases and other health conditions, and improvements in the organization, financing, and delivery of health care services. One of the duties of AHRQ is to convene the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (42 U.S.C. §299b–4 (a) as amended by Public Law 106-129 (1999) and Public Laws 111-148 and 111-152 (2010), Sec. 4003):
- ESTABLISHMENT AND PURPOSE.—The Director shall convene an independent Preventive Services Task Force (referred to in this subsection as the "Task Force") to be composed of individuals with appropriate expertise. Such Task Force shall review the scientific evidence related to the effectiveness, appropriateness, and cost-effectiveness of clinical preventive services for the purpose of developing recommendations for the health care community, and updating previous clinical preventive recommendations, to be published in the Guide to Clinical Preventive Services (referred to in this section as the "Guide"), for individuals and organizations delivering clinical services, including primary care professionals, health care systems, professional societies, employers, community organizations, nonprofit organizations, Congress and other policy-makers, governmental public health agencies, health care quality organizations, and organizations developing national health objectives. Such recommendations shall consider clinical preventive best practice recommendations from the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, the National Institutes of Health, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the Institute of Medicine, specialty medical associations, patient groups, and scientific societies.
- DUTIES.—The duties of the Task Force shall include—
(A) the development of additional topic areas for new recommendations and interventions related to those topic areas, including those related to specific sub-populations and age groups;
(B) at least once during every 5-year period, review1 interventions and update2 recommendations related to existing topic areas, including new or improved techniques to assess the health effects of interventions;
(C) improved integration with Federal Government health objectives and related target setting for health improvement;
(D) the enhanced dissemination of recommendations;
(E) the provision of technical assistance to those health care professionals, agencies and organizations that request help in implementing the Guide3 recommendations; and
(F) the submission of yearly reports to Congress and related agencies identifying gaps in research, such as preventive services that receive an insufficient evidence statement, and recommending priority areas that deserve further examination, including areas related to populations and age groups not adequately addressed by current recommendations.
- ROLE OF AGENCY.—The Agency shall provide ongoing administrative, research, and technical support for the operations of the Task Force, including coordinating and supporting the dissemination of the recommendations of the Task Force, ensuring adequate staff resources, and assistance to those organizations requesting it for implementation of the Guide's recommendations.
- COORDINATION WITH COMMUNITY PREVENTIVE SERVICES TASK FORCE.—The Task Force shall take appropriate steps to coordinate its work with the Community Preventive Services Task Force and the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices, including the examination of how each task force's recommendations interact at the nexus of clinic and community.
- OPERATION.—In carrying out its responsibilities under paragraph (1), the Task Force is not subject to the provisions of Appendix 2 of Title 5 [United States Code].
- INDEPENDENCE.—All members of the Task Force convened under this subsection, and any recommendations made by such members, shall be independent and, to the extent practicable, not subject to political pressure.
- AUTHORIZATION OF APPROPRIATIONS.—There are authorized to be appropriated such sums as may be necessary for each fiscal year to carry out the activities of the Task Force.
Sec. 2713 of the Affordable Care Act requires private insurers to cover preventive services recommended by the USPSTF with a grade of A or B, along with those recommended by ACIP, Bright Futures, and HRSA's guidelines for women's health. The Affordable Care Act requires insurers to cover these services with no cost-sharing (i.e., no deductible and no co-pay).
Sec. 4105 of the Affordable Care Act authorizes Medicare to expand its existing coverage of preventive services consistent with USPSTF recommendations. Services covered by Medicare prior to the Affordable Care Act, and which have received a grade of A, B, C, or I from the USPSTF, must still be covered. However, Sec. 4105 authorizes Medicare to not pay for services that have received a grade of D from the USPSTF.
Finally, Sec. 4106 of the Affordable Care Act requires Medicaid to cover preventive services recommended by the USPSTF with a grade of A or B, as well as those recommended by ACIP.
SEC. 2713. COVERAGE OF PREVENTIVE HEALTH SERVICES.
''(a) IN GENERAL.—A group health plan and a health insurance issuer offering group or individual health insurance coverage shall, at a minimum provide coverage for and shall not impose any cost sharing requirements for—
''(1) evidence-based items or services that have in effect a rating of 'A' or 'B' in the current recommendations of the United States Preventive Services Task Force;
''(2) immunizations that have in effect a recommendation from the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention with respect to the individual involved; and
''(3) with respect to infants, children, and adolescents, evidence-informed preventive care and screenings provided for in the comprehensive guidelines supported by the Health Resources and Services Administration.
''(4) with respect to women, such additional preventive care and screenings not described in paragraph (1) as provided for in comprehensive guidelines supported by the Health Resources and Services Administration for purposes of this paragraph.
''(5) for the purposes of this Act, and for the purposes of any other provision of law, the current recommendations of the United States Preventive Service Task Force regarding breast cancer screening, mammography, and prevention shall be considered the most current other than those issued in or around November 2009.
Nothing in this subsection shall be construed to prohibit a plan or issuer from providing coverage for services in addition to those recommended by United States Preventive Services Task Force or to deny coverage for services that are not recommended by such Task Force.
— (1) IN GENERAL.—The Secretary shall establish a minimum interval between the date on which a recommendation described in subsection (a)(1) or (a)(2) or a guideline under subsection (a)(3) is issued and the plan year with respect to which the requirement described in subsection (a) is effective with respect to the service described in such recommendation or guideline.
''(2) MINIMUM.—The interval described in paragraph (1) shall not be less than 1 year.
SEC. 4105. EVIDENCE-BASED COVERAGE OF PREVENTIVE SERVICES IN MEDICARE.
(a) AUTHORITY TO MODIFY OR ELIMINATE COVERAGE OF CERTAIN PREVENTIVE SERVICES.—Section 1834 of the Social Security Act (42 U.S.C. 1395m) is amended by adding at the end the following new subsection:
''(n) AUTHORITY TO MODIFY OR ELIMINATE COVERAGE OF CERTAIN PREVENTIVE SERVICES.— Notwithstanding any other provision of this title, effective beginning on January 1, 2010, if the Secretary determines appropriate, the Secretary may—
''(A) the coverage of any preventive service described in subparagraph (A) of section 1861(ddd)(3) to the extent that such modification is consistent with the recommendations of the United States Preventive Services Task Force; and
''(B) the services included in the initial preventive physical examination described in subparagraph (B) of such section; and
''(2) provide that no payment shall be made under this title for a preventive service described in subparagraph (A) of such section that has not received a grade of A, B, C, or I by such Task Force.
'' (b) CONSTRUCTION.—Nothing in the amendment made by paragraph (1) shall be construed to affect the coverage of diagnostic or treatment services under title XVIII of the Social Security Act.
SEC. 4106. IMPROVING ACCESS TO PREVENTIVE SERVICES FOR ELIGIBLE ADULTS IN MEDICAID.
(a) CLARIFICATION OF INCLUSION OF SERVICES.—Section 1905(a)(13) of the Social Security Act (42 U.S.C. 1396d(a)(13)) is amended to read as follows:
''(13) other diagnostic, screening, preventive, and rehabilitative services, including—
''(A) any clinical preventive services that are assigned a grade of A or B by the United States Preventive Services Task Force;
''(B) with respect to an adult individual, approved vaccines recommended by the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (an advisory committee established by the Secretary, acting through the Director of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) and their administration (…)
Internet Citation: Appendix I. Congressional Mandate Establishing the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. April 2019.