Draft Research Plan
Draft Research Plan for Illicit Drug Use, Including Nonmedical Use of Prescription Drugs: Screening
This opportunity for public comment expired on August 31, 2016 at 8:00 PM EST
Note: This is a Draft Research Plan. This draft is distributed solely for the purpose of receiving public input. It has not been disseminated otherwise by the USPSTF. The final Research Plan will be used to guide a systematic review of the evidence by researchers at an Evidence-based Practice Center. The resulting Evidence Review will form the basis of the USPSTF Recommendation Statement on this topic.
Recommendations made by the USPSTF are independent of the U.S. government. They should not be construed as an official position of the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality or the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.
Draft: Proposed Analytic Framework
Figure 1 is the analytic framework that depicts the five Key Questions to be addressed in the systematic review. The figure illustrates how screening for drug use in adolescents and adults, including pregnant women, may result in improved behavioral outcomes, including drug abstinence, frequency and/or quantity of drug use, or other risky behaviors (Key Question 1a) and improved health, social, and legal outcomes (Key Question 1b). Within the screening piece of the framework, there is also a question related to the accuracy of drug use screening instruments (Key Question 2) and potential harms of screening (Key Question 3). Additionally, the figure illustrates how interventions to reduce drug use may have an impact on behavioral outcomes (Key Question 4a) and health outcomes (Key Question 4b) and whether these interventions result in any adverse events (Key Question 5).
Draft: Proposed Key Questions to Be Systematically Reviewed
- a. Does primary care screening for drug use* in adolescents and adults, including pregnant women, reduce drug use or improve other risky behaviors?
b. Does primary care screening for drug use* in adolescents and adults, including pregnant women, reduce morbidity or mortality or improve other health, social, or legal outcomes?
- What is the accuracy of drug use screening instruments?
- What are the harms of primary care screening for drug use in adolescents and adults, including pregnant women?
- a. Do interventions to reduce drug use, with or without referral, reduce drug use or improve other risky behaviors in screen-detected persons?
b. Do interventions to reduce drug use, with or without referral, reduce morbidity or mortality or improve other health, social, or legal outcomes in screen-detected persons?
- What are the harms of interventions to reduce drug use in screen-detected persons?
Draft: Proposed Research Approach
The proposed Research Approach identifies the study characteristics and criteria that the Evidence-based Practice Center will use to search for publications and to determine whether identified studies should be included or excluded from the Evidence Review. Criteria are overarching as well as specific to each of the key questions (KQs).
|Aim||Screening for and/or treatment of illicit drug use and/or nonmedical pharmaceutical drug use, with or without addressing other substances or behaviors||Studies in which the only aim is targeting another behavior (e.g., alcohol misuse, tobacco use) (i.e., change in drug use is not a stated aim but is a reported outcome)|
|Condition||Use of the following drugs, defined as any drug use that can result in poor health consequences, including meeting criteria for a drug use disorder:
|Population||All KQs: Adolescents and adults age 12 years and older
KQs 1–3: Studies whose participants are not selected on the basis of drug use or a related behavior or condition
KQs 4, 5: Studies in which at least 50% of the enrolled sample is recruited via population-based screening
A priori subpopulations at greater risk for drug use or its consequences will be examined based on the following factors: age (particularly young adults ages 18 to 25 years and adolescents ages 12 to 17 years), sex, race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, pregnancy status, concurrent substance use (tobacco or alcohol), severity of the disorder, and presence of comorbid mental health conditions
|Screening||KQs 1, 3: Screening for drug use using a brief standardized instrument or set of questions that is conducted in person or via telephone, mail, or electronically
KQ 2: Accuracy of screening instruments, such as the Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST); Cut down, Annoyed, Guilty, Eye-opener–Adapted to Include Drug Use (CAGE-AID); Car, Relax, Alone, Forget, Friends, Trouble (CRAFFT); Drug Abuse Screening Test (DAST), including the DAST-10; 4P's (Past use, Pregnancy, use by Parents and Partners) Plus; and the National Institute on Drug Abuse Quick Screen
|Comparisons||KQs 1, 3: No screening or usual care
KQ 2: Reference standard (i.e., structured or semistructured clinical interview)
KQs 4, 5:
|Settings||KQs 1–3: Population-based screening that takes place in a setting that is applicable to primary care, including: primary care clinics; prenatal clinics; obstetric/gynecology clinics; and research clinic/office, home, or other community settings, including electronic or computer-based screening
KQs 4, 5: Interventions in a screen-detected population that take place in a traditional primary care setting or one that is applicable to or referable from primary care, including: primary care clinics; prenatal clinics; obstetric/gynecology clinics; behavioral/mental health clinics; substance abuse treatment centers; and research clinic/office, home, or other community settings, including electronic or computer-based interventions
|Screening that takes place in:
|Outcomes||KQs 1b, 4b:
KQs 1a, 4a:
|Outcome assessment timing||At least 6 months after baseline measurement (except for studies in pregnant women, for which shorter lengths of followup will be included)|
|Study design||KQs 1, 3: Studies that compare individuals who receive screening with those receiving no screening or usual care, including randomized controlled trials, cluster randomized controlled trials, nonrandomized controlled trials, and prospective cohort studies
KQ 2: Studies of screening accuracy reporting sensitivity and specificity compared with a structured or semistructured clinical interview
KQs 4, 5:
|KQs 1, 3: Retrospective cohort studies
KQs 4, 5: Prospective and retrospective cohort studies
All KQs: Case control studies, time series studies, before-after studies, cross-sectional studies, case studies, case series, editorials/commentaries
|Country||Studies conducted in countries categorized as "Very High" on the 2015 Human Development Index (as defined by the United Nations Development Programme)||Studies conducted in countries that are not categorized as "Very High" on the 2015 Human Development Index|
|Publication date||Studies whose primary results were published from 1992 to present||Studies whose primary results were published prior to 1992|
|Quality||Fair or good quality||Poor quality (according to design-specific USPSTF criteria)|
* Medications used to manage withdrawal symptoms, relieve cravings, or prevent relapse for the treatment of addiction to opioids include: methadone (Dolophine, Methadose), buprenorphine hydrochloride (Subutex), buprenorphine hydrochloride and naloxone hydrochloride (Suboxone), and naltrexone (Vivitrol). No other medications are approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of drug use.
Abbreviation: STI=sexually transmitted infection.
Internet Citation: Draft Research Plan: Illicit Drug Use, Including Nonmedical Use of Prescription Drugs: Screening. U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. August 2016.