Vitamin D Deficiency: Screening
Recommendations made by the USPSTF are independent of the U.S. government. They should not be construed as an official position of the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality or the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.
Screening for Vitamin D Deficiency in Adults
|Population||Community-dwelling, nonpregnant, asymptomatic adults aged ≥18 y|
Grade: I statement (insufficient evidence)
|Risk Assessment||Persons with low vitamin D intake, decreased vitamin D absorption, and little or no sun exposure (for example, due to the winter season, high latitude, or physical sun avoidance) may be at increased risk for vitamin D deficiency. Obesity and darker skin pigmentation may be associated with low levels of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-[OH]D), but it is not clear whether low levels in these populations reflect vitamin D deficiency or are associated with adverse clinical outcomes.|
|Screening Tests||Numerous testing methods to measure serum 25-(OH)D are available. However, their accuracy is difficult to determine because of the lack of studies that use an internationally recognized reference standard and the lack of consensus on the laboratory values that define vitamin D deficiency.|
|Treatment||Oral vitamin D is the most common treatment for vitamin D deficiency; available forms include vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) and vitamin D2 (ergocalciferol). Other treatment options include increasing dietary vitamin D intake or sun exposure, although sun exposure is not generally recommended because it can increase the risk for skin cancer.|
|Balance of Benefits and Harms||The current evidence is insufficient to assess the balance of benefits and harms of screening for vitamin D deficiency in asymptomatic adults.|
|Other Relevant USPSTF Recommendations||The USPSTF has recommendations on the use of vitamin D supplementation for the prevention of falls and fractures and vitamin supplementation for the prevention of cardiovascular disease or cancer. These recommendations are available at http://www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org.|
For a summary of the evidence systematically reviewed in making these recommendations, the full recommendation statement, and supporting documents, please go to http://www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org.
Disclaimer: Recommendations made by the USPSTF are independent of the U.S. government. They should not be construed as an official position of the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality or the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.
Internet Citation: Clinical Summary: Vitamin D Deficiency: Screening. U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. November 2014.