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Vitamin D With or Without Calcium Supplementation for Prevention of Cancer and Fractures (continued)

Table 2. Results of Linear Mixed-Effects Meta-Regression to Examine the Dose–Response Relationships Between Each 10-nmol/L Increase in Prediagnosis Blood 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentration and the Risks for Colorectal, Prostate, and Breast Cancer in Nested Case–Control Studies

Outcomes Studies (Reference) Methodologic Quality Case-Patients and Controls, n* Pooled Adjusted
OR (95% CI)
P Value
Colorectal cancer 9 nested case–control studies (19, 38–45) 8 fair, 1 poor 1127 case-patients
1122 controls
0.94 (0.91–0.97) <0.001
Prostate cancer 8 nested case–control studies (46, 47, 49, 50, 52–55) 4 fair, 4 poor 2399 case-patients
3210 controls
1.01 (0.99–1.04) 0.35
Female breast cancer 4 nested case–control studies (57–60) 3 fair, 1 poor 2363 case-patients
2363 controls
0.99 (0.97–1.01) 0.42

OR = odds ratio.
* Effective counts of case-patients and controls. Go to the Appendix for methods used for the dose–response meta-analyses.
Different covariates were adjusted across studies.

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