U.S. Preventive Services 

Task Force banner
U.S. Preventive Services Task Force

You Are Here: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force > Topic Index > Screening for Osteoporosis > Supporting Article > Appendix Figure 1 (Text Description)


Screening for Osteoporosis: An Update for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force

Appendix Figure 1. Analytic Framework and KQs (Text Description)

This figure depicts the analytic framework for screening for osteoporosis. The diagram starts on the left with text that reads "postmenopausal women and men." An arrow then leads to the right; above the arrow appears text that reads "risk factor assessment." Arrow 1, which proceeds up and to the right, represents Key Question (KQ) 1: "Does screening for osteoporosis and low bone density reduce osteoporosis-related fractures and/or fracture-related morbidity and mortality in: a) postmenopausal women younger than 60; women ages 60 to 64 who are at increased risk of osteoporotic fractures; women ages 60 to 64 who are not at increased risk of osteoporotic fractures; women older than 65; and b) men older than 50?" Arrow 1 goes directly to the end of the diagram on the far right.

Arrow 2 represents KQ 2, which is: "What valid and reliable risk assessment instruments stratify women and men into risk categories for osteoporosis or fractures?" Arrow 2 proceeds to the right and forks in two directions. One fork stops at a box labeled "low risk." The other fork proceeds to a box labeled "high risk."

Arrow 3 proceeds from the box and to the right; above the arrow is text that reads "bone measurement testing." Arrow 3 represents KQ 3, which has three parts: 3a) "How well does dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry predict fractures in men?" 3b) "How well do peripheral bone measurement tests predict fractures?" and 3c) "What is the evidence to determine screening intervals for osteoporosis and low bone density?" Arrow 3 then proceeds to the right.

Arrow 4 curves down and ends at an oval labeled "harms." Arrow 4 represents KQ 4: "What are the harms associated with osteoporosis screening?" Arrow 3 then forks in two directions. One fork stops at a box labeled "normal." The other fork proceeds to a box labeled "abnormal." From this box proceeds Arrow 5; above this arrow is text that reads "treatment." Arrow 5 represents KQ 5, which is: "Do medications for osteoporosis and low bone density reduce osteoporosis-related fracture rates and/or fracture-related morbidity and mortality in the target populations?" Arrow 5 then proceeds to the right.

Arrow 6 curves down and ends at an oval labeled "harms." Arrow 6 represents KQ6: "What are the harms associated with medications for osteoporosis and low bone density?" Arrow 5 then proceeds to a box labeled "reduced fractures." From there, the arrow proceeds via a dotted line to the last box of the diagram, labeled "reduced fracture-related morbidity and mortality."

KQ = key question.

Return to Document

 


USPSTF Program Office   540 Gaither Road, Rockville, MD 20850