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U.S. Preventive Services Task Force


Screening for HIV

Appendix B. Search Strategies

Immunization—Database: MEDLINE® (1996 to Present)

1. exp hiv infections/ or exp hiv/
2. exp Viral Hepatitis Vaccines/
3. exp Influenza Vaccine/
4. exp Bacterial Vaccines/
5. 2 or 3 or 4
6. 1 and 5
7. exp IMMUNIZATION/
8. exp Immunization Programs/
9. 7 or 8
10. exp HEPATITIS/
11. exp INFLUENZA/
12. exp PNEUMONIA/
13. 10 or 11 or 12
14. 1 and 9 and 13
15. 6 or 14
16. exp Evaluation Studies/
17. exp Epidemiologic Studies/
18. Comparative Study/
19. 16 or 17 or 18
20. 15 and 19
21. limit 15 to (clinical trial or guideline or meta-analysis or multicenter study or practice guideline)
22. 20 or 21
23. limit 22 to (human and english language)
24. from 23 keep 1-206

Prophylaxis—Database: MEDLINE® (1996 to Present)

1. exp AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/pc [Prevention & Control]
2. prophyla$.mp.
3. exp HIV Infections/co [Complications]
4. exp AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/
5. 2 and (3 or 4)
6. 1 or 5
7. limit 6 to (human and english language and (clinical trial or guideline or meta-analysis or multicenter study or practice guideline))
8. from 7 keep 1-396

Counseling—Database: MEDLINE® (1996 to Present)

1. exp HIV Infections/ or exp HIV/
2. exp COUNSELING/
3. 1 and 2
4. exp impulsive behavior/ or risk reduction behavior/ or risk-taking/
5. 1 and 4
6. 3 or 5
7. exp Evaluation Studies/
8. Comparative Study/
9. exp Epidemiologic Studies/
10. 7 or 8 or 9
11. 6 and 10
12. limit 6 to (clinical trial or guideline or meta-analysis or multicenter study or practice guideline)
13. 11 or 12
14. limit 13 to (human and english language)
15. from 14 keep 1-1272

Risk Factors—Database: MEDLINE® (1996 to Present)

1. exp RISK/
2. exp HIV Infections/mo, ep, eh, et, tm, pc [Mortality, Epidemiology, Ethnology, Etiology, Transmission, Prevention & Control]
3. 1 and 2
4. limit 3 to (human and english language and (clinical trial or guideline or meta-analysis or multicenter study or practice guideline))
5. exp HIV/
6. 1 and 5
7. limit 6 to (human and english language and (clinical trial or guideline or meta-analysis or multicenter study or practice guideline))
8. 4 or 7
9. exp Evaluation Studies/
10. Comparative Study/
11. exp Epidemiologic Studies/
12. 9 or 10 or 11
13. (3 or 6) and 12
14. limit 13 to (human and english language)
15. from 8 keep 1-573

Screening—Database: MEDLINE® (1996 to Present)

1. exp AIDS Serodiagnosis/
2. exp HIV SERONEGATIVITY/ or exp HIV ANTIGENS/ or exp HIV/ or exp HIV SEROPREVALENCE/ or exp HIV SEROPOSITIVITY/ or exp HIV ANTIBODIES/
3. exp Mass Screening/
4. 2 and 3
5. 1 or 4
6. exp "Sensitivity and Specificity"/
7. 5 and 6
8. ae.fs.
9. exp stress, psychological/
10. Life Change Events/
11. exp prejudice/ or prejudic$.mp.
12. 8 or 9 or 10 or 11
13. 5 and 12
14. exp diagnostic errors/
15. 5 and 14
16. 7 or 13 or 15
17. exp Evaluation Studies/
18. Comparative Study/
19. exp longitudinal studies/
20. 17 or 18 or 19
21. 16 and 20
22. limit 16 to (clinical trial or guideline or meta-analysis or multicenter study or practice guideline or review)
23. 22 or 21
24. limit 23 to (human and english language)
25. limit 23 to (human and abstracts)
26. 24 or 25
27. from 26 keep 1-247

Antiviral Drug—Database: MEDLINE® (1998 to Present)

1. exp HIV Infections/dt [Drug Therapy]
2. exp HIV/de [Drug Effects]
3. 1 or 2
4. exp Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors/ad, tu
5. exp HIV Protease Inhibitors/ad, tu
6. exp antihiv agents/ad, tu
7. 4 or 5 or 6
8. 3 and 7
9. limit 8 to (human and english language and (clinical trial or guideline or meta-analysis or multicenter study or practice guideline))
10. exp Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors/ae, ct, to, po
11. exp HIV Protease Inhibitors/ae, ct, to, po
12. exp antihiv agents/ae, ct, to, to
13. 10 or 11 or 12
14. 3 and 13
15. limit 14 to (human and english language and (clinical trial or guideline or meta-analysis or multicenter study or practice guideline))
16. 14 and exp epidemiologic studies/
17. 14 and (exp evaluation studies/ or exp comparative study/)
18. 16 or 17
19. limit 18 to (human and english language)
20. 15 or 19
21. limit 9 to yr = 1998-2003
22. from 21 keep 1-1157

Adverse Effects—Database: MEDLINE® (1998 to Present)

1. exp HIV Infections/dt [Drug Therapy]
2. exp HIV/de [Drug Effects]
3. 1 or 2
4. exp Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors/ad, tu
5. exp HIV Protease Inhibitors/ad, tu
6. exp antihiv agents/ad, tu
7. 4 or 5 or 6
8. 3 and 7
9. limit 8 to (human and english language and (clinical trial or guideline or meta-analysis or multicenter study or practice guideline))
10. exp Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors/ae, ct, to, po
11. exp HIV Protease Inhibitors/ae, ct, to, po
12. exp antihiv agents/ae, ct, to, to
13. 10 or 11 or 12
14. 3 and 13
15. limit 14 to (human and english language and (clinical trial or guideline or meta-analysis or multicenter study or practice guideline))
16. 14 and exp epidemiologic studies/
17. 14 and (exp evaluation studies/ or exp comparative study/)
18. 16 or 17
19. limit 18 to (human and english language)
20. 15 or 19
21. limit 9 to yr = 1998-2003
22. from 21 keep 1-1157
23. limit 20 to yr = 1998-2003
24. from 23 keep 1-732
25. from 24 keep 1-732

Work-up—Database: MEDLINE® (1998 to Present)

1. exp HIV/
2. viral load.mp. or Viral Load/
3. VIREMIA/
4. exp HIV Infections/
5. 1 or 4
6. 2 or 3
7. 5 and 6
8. (exp leukocyte count/ and cd4.mp.) or exp cd4 lymphocyte count/
9. exp "pathologic conditions, signs and symptoms"/ or disease progression/
10. 7 and 8 and 9
11. exp "sensitivity and specificity"/
12. 10 and 11
13. exp epidemiologic studies/
14. 10 and 13
15. limit 10 to (human and english language and (clinical trial or guideline or meta-analysis or multicenter study or practice guideline))
16. limit 14 to (human and english language)
17. 15 or 16
18. from 17 keep 1-232

Maternal—Database: MEDLINE® (1996 to Present)

1. exp HIV/ or exp HIV INFECTIONS/
2. exp Anti-HIV Agents/ad, ae, po, ct, tu, to [Administration & Dosage, Adverse Effects, Poisoning, Contraindications, Therapeutic Use, Toxicity]
3. exp Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors/ad, ae, po, ct, tu, to [Administration & Dosage, Adverse Effects, Poisoning, Contraindications, Therapeutic Use, Toxicity]
4. exp HIV Protease Inhibitors/ad, ae, po, tu, ct, to [Administration & Dosage, Adverse Effects, Poisoning, Therapeutic Use, Contraindications, Toxicity]
5. 1 and (2 or 3 or 4)
6. exp Disease Transmission, Vertical/
7. exp HIV Infections/tm
8. pregnancy complications/ or exp pregnancy complications, infectious/
9. exp Pregnancy/
10. 6 or 7
11. 8 or 9
12. 10 and 11
13. 5 and 12
14. limit 13 to (human and english language and (clinical trial or guideline or meta-analysis or multicenter study or practice guideline))
15. exp Evaluation Studies/
16. Comparative Study/
17. exp Epidemiologic Studies/
18. 15 or 16 or 17
19. 13 and 18
20. limit 19 to (human and english language)
21. 14 or 20
22. from 21 keep 1-373

Cesarean—Database: MEDLINE® (1996 to Present)

1. exp HIV/ or exp HIV INFECTIONS/
2. exp Anti-HIV Agents/ad, ae, po, ct, tu, to [Administration & Dosage, Adverse Effects, Poisoning, Contraindications, Therapeutic Use, Toxicity]
3. exp Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors/ad, ae, po, ct, tu, to [Administration & Dosage, Adverse Effects, Poisoning, Contraindications, Therapeutic Use, Toxicity]
4. exp HIV Protease Inhibitors/ad, ae, po, tu, ct, to [Administration & Dosage, Adverse Effects, Poisoning, Therapeutic Use, Contraindications, Toxicity]
5. exp cesarean section/
6. 1 and (2 or 3 or 4 or 5)
7. exp Disease Transmission, Vertical/
8. exp HIV Infections/tm
9. pregnancy complications/ or exp pregnancy complications, infectious/
10. exp Pregnancy/
11. 7 or 8
12. 9 or 10
13. 11 and 12
14. 6 and 13
15. limit 14 to (human and english language and (clinical trial or guideline or meta-analysis or multicenter study or practice guideline))
16. exp Evaluation Studies/
17. Comparative Study/
18. exp Epidemiologic Studies/
19. 16 or 17 or 18
20. 14 and 19
21. limit 20 to (human and english language)
22. 15 or 21

Cost of Screening—Database: MEDLINE® (1996 to Present)

1. exp HIV Infections/
2. exp HIV/
3. 1 or 2
4. exp "Costs and Cost Analysis"/
5. 3 and 4
6. Comparative Study/
7. exp Evaluation Studies/
8. exp epidemiologic study characteristics/
9. 5 and (6 or 7 or 8)
10. limit 9 to (human and english language)
11. exp Mass Screening/
12. 9 and 11
13. 5 and 11
14. limit 13 to (human and english language)
15. ec.fs.
16. 3 and 15
17. 16 and 11
18. limit 17 to (human and english language)
19. 14 or 18
20. from 19 keep 1-179

Systematic Reviews—Database: PubMED®

1. hiv/de [mh] OR hiv infections/dt [mh]
2. anti hiv agents[pa] OR reverse transcriptase inhibitors[pa] OR hiv protease inhibitors [pa]
3. #1 OR #2
4. evaluation studies[mh] OR epidemiologic studies[mh] OR comparative study [mh]
5. #3 AND #4
6. tu[sh] OR ad[sh] OR ae[sh] OR to[sh] OR po[sh] OR ct[sh]
7. #5 AND #6
8. #7 AND systematic [sb]
9. #8 AND Limits: Publication Date from 1989 to 1997, English, Human

Note: Systematic [sb] represents the following strategy as taken from the Clinical Queries search help page within PubMed®.
((systematic review$ OR systematic literature review$ OR meta-analysis.pt. OR meta-analysis.ti. OR meta-analysis.ti. OR meta-analyses.ti. OR evidence-based medicine OR (evidence-based AND (guideline.tw. OR guidelines.tw. OR recommendations)) OR (evidenced-based AND (guideline.tw. OR guidelines.tw. OR recommendation$)) OR consensus development conference.pt. OR health planning guidelines OR guideline.pt. OR cochrane database syst rev OR acp journal club OR health technol assess OR evid rep technol assess summ OR evid based nurs OR evid based ment health OR clin evid) OR ((systematic.tw. OR systematically OR critical.tw. OR (study.tw. AND selection.tw.) OR (predetermined OR inclusion AND criteri$.tw.) OR exclusion criteri$ OR main outcome measures OR standard of care) AND (survey.tw. OR surveys.tw. OR overview$ OR review.tw. OR reviews OR search$ OR handsearch OR analysis.tw. OR critique.tw. OR appraisal OR (reduction AND risk AND (death OR recurrence))) AND (literature.tw. OR articles OR publications.tw. OR publication.tw. OR bibliography.tw. OR bibliographies OR published OR unpublished OR citation OR citations OR database OR internet.tw. OR textbooks.tw. OR references OR trials OR meta-analysis.mh. OR (clinical.tw. AND studies) OR treatment outcome)) NOT (case report.ti. OR case report.mh. OR editorial.ti. OR editorial.pt. OR letter.pt. OR newspaper article.pt.))

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