You Are Here:
8. Easton DF, Bishop DT, Ford D, Crockford GP. Genetic linkage analysis in familial breast and ovarian cancer: results from 214 families. The Breast Cancer Linkage Consortium. Am J Hum Genet 1993;52:678-701.
9. Struewing JP, Hartge P, Wacholder S, Baker SM, Berlin M, McAdams M, et al. The risk of cancer associated with specific mutations of BRCA1 and BRCA2 among Ashkenazi Jews. N Engl J Med 1997;336:1401-8.
12. Peelen T, van Vliet M, Petrij-Bosch A, Mieremet R, Szabo C, van den Ouweland AM, et al. A high proportion of novel mutations in BRCA1 with strong founder effects among Dutch and Belgian hereditary breast and ovarian cancer families. Am J Hum Genet 1997;60:1041-9.
13. Thorlacius S, Olafsdottir G, Tryggvadottir L, Neuhausen S, Jonasson JG, Tavtigian SV, et al. A single BRCA2 mutation in male and female breast cancer families from Iceland with varied cancer phenotypes. Nat Genet 1996;13:117-9.
14. Arason A, Jonasdottir A, Barkardottir RB, Bergthorsson JT, Teare MD, Easton DF, et al. A population study of mutations and LOH at breast cancer gene loci in tumours from sister pairs: two recurrent mutations seem to account for all BRCA1/BRCA2 linked breast cancer in Iceland. J Med Genet 1998;35: 446-9.
15. Einbeigi Z, Bergman A, Kindblom LG, Martinsson T, Meis-Kindblom JM, Nordling M, et al. A founder mutation of the BRCA1 gene in Western Sweden associated with a high incidence of breast and ovarian cancer. Eur J Cancer 2001;37:1904-9.
19. American College of Medical Genetics Professional Practice and Guidelines Committee. Genetic susceptibility to breast and ovarian cancer: assessment, counseling, and testing guidelines executive summary. 1999. Accessed at http://www.health.state.ny.us/nysdoh/cancer/obcancer/contents.htm on 18 July 2005.
21. Frank TS, Deffenbaugh AM, Reid JE, Hulick M, Ward BE, Lingenfelter B, et al. Clinical characteristics of individuals with germline mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2: analysis of 10,000 individuals. J Clin Oncol 2002;20:1480-90.
23. Shattuck-Eidens D, Oliphant A, McClure M, McBride C, Gupte J, Rubano T, et al. BRCA1 sequence analysis in women at high risk for susceptibility mutations. Risk factor analysis and implications for genetic testing. JAMA 1997; 278:1242-50.
31. Lerman C, Hughes C, Benkendorf JL, Biesecker B, Kerner J, Willison J, et al. Racial differences in testing motivation and psychological distress following pretest education for BRCA1 gene testing. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 1999;8:361-7.
32. Lerman C, Schwartz MD, Miller SM, Daly M, Sands C, Rimer BK. A randomized trial of breast cancer risk counseling: interacting effects of counseling, educational level, and coping style. Health Psychol 1996;15:75-83.
35. Unger MA, Nathanson KL, Calzone K, Antin-Ozerkis D, Shih HA, Martin AM, et al. Screening for genomic rearrangements in families with breast and ovarian cancer identifies BRCA1 mutations previously missed by conformation-sensitive gel electrophoresis or sequencing. Am J Hum Genet 2000;67:841-50.
37. Burke W, Daly M, Garber J, Botkin J, Kahn MJ, Lynch P, et al. Recommendations for follow-up care of individuals with an inherited predisposition to cancer. II. BRCA1 and BRCA2. Cancer Genetics Studies Consortium. JAMA 1997;277:997-1003.
45. Bowen D, Christensen C, Powers D, Graves D, Anderson C. Effects of counseling and ethnic identity on perceived risk and cancer worry in African American women. Journal of Clinical Psychology Medical Settings 1998;5:365-79.
48. Nelson HD, Huffman L, Fu R, Harris E, Walker M, Bougatsos C. Genetic risk assessment and testing for breast and ovarian cancer susceptibility. Evidence Synthesis (Prepared by the Oregon Health & Science University Evidence-based Practice Center under contract 290-97-0018). Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality; 2005 [In press].
50. Collaborative Group on Hormonal Factors in Breast Cancer. Familial breast cancer: collaborative reanalysis of individual data from 52 epidemiological studies including 58,209 women with breast cancer and 101,986 women without the disease. Lancet 2001;358:1389-99.
51. Ries LA, Eisner MP, Kosary CL, Hankey BF, Miller BA, Clegg L, et al. SEER cancer statistics review, 1975-2001. Bethesda, MD: National Cancer Institute. Accessed at http://seer.cancer.gov/csr/1975_2001 on 19 October 2004.
52. Cancer Genetics Network. Accessed at http://epi.grants.cancer.gov/CGN/ on 20 March 2005.
57. Frank TS, Manley SA, Olopade OI, Cummings S, Garber JE, Bernhardt B, et al. Sequence analysis of BRCA1 and BRCA2: correlation of mutations with family history and ovarian cancer risk. J Clin Oncol 1998;16:2417-25.
60. Berry DA, Iversen ES Jr, Gudbjartsson DF, Hiller EH, Garber JE, Peshkin BN, et al. BRCAPRO validation, sensitivity of genetic testing of BRCA1/BRCA2, and prevalence of other breast cancer susceptibility genes. J Clin Oncol 2002;20:2701-12.
62. Euhus DM, Smith KC, Robinson L, Stucky A, Olopade OI, Cummings S, et al. Pretest prediction of BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation by risk counselors and the computer model BRCAPRO. J Natl Cancer Inst 2002;94:844-51.
67. Gilpin CA, Carson N, Hunter AG. A preliminary validation of a family history assessment form to select women at risk for breast or ovarian cancer for referral to a genetics center. Clin Genet 2000;58:299-308.
68. Evans DG, Eccles DM, Rahman N, Young K, Bulman M, Amir E, et al. A new scoring system for the chances of identifying a BRCA1/2 mutation outperforms existing models including BRCAPRO. J Med Genet 2004;41:474-80.
69. Emery J, Walton R, Coulson A, Glasspool D, Ziebland S, Fox J. Computer support for recording and interpreting family histories of breast and ovarian cancer in primary care (RAGs): qualitative evaluation with simulated patients. BMJ 1999;319:32-6.
70. Emery J, Walton R, Murphy M, Austoker J, Yudkin P, Chapman C, et al. Computer support for interpreting family histories of breast and ovarian cancer in primary care: comparative study with simulated cases. BMJ 2000;321:28-32.
73. Statement of the American Society of Clinical Oncology. Genetic testing for cancer susceptibility: indications for genetic testing. SEER Data. Accessed at http://seer.cancer.gov/studies/epidemiology/study18.html on 30 March 2005.
74. Mouchawar J, Valentine Goins K, Somkin C, Puleo E, Hensley Alford S, Geiger AM, et al. Guidelines for breast and ovarian cancer genetic counseling referral: adoption and implementation in HMOs. Genet Med 2003;5:444-50.
76. Møller P, Evans G, Haites N, Vasen H, Reis MM, Anderson E, et al. Guidelines for follow-up of women at high risk for inherited breast cancer: consensus statement from the Biomed 2 Demonstration Programme on Inherited Breast Cancer. Dis Markers 1999;15:207-11.
77. Fries MH, Holt C, Carpenter I, Carter CL, Daniels J, Flanagan J, et al. Guidelines for evaluation of patients at risk for inherited breast and ovarian cancer: recommendations of the Department of Defense Familial Breast/Ovarian Cancer Research Project. Mil Med 2002;167:93-8.
80. Genetic susceptibility to breast and ovarian cancer: assessment, counseling and testing guidelines. New York State Department of Health. Accessed at http://www.health.state.ny.us/nysdoh/cancer/obcancer/pp6-12.htm on 18 March 2004.
81. National Breast Cancer Centre. Advice about familial aspects of breast cancer and ovarian cancer—a guide for health professionals. Sydney: National Breast Cancer Center. Accessed at www.nbcc.org.au/bestpractice/resources/BOG_BreastOvarianGuideSimpl.pdf on 30 March 2005.
83. Eccles DM, Evans DG, Mackay J. Guidelines for a genetic risk based approach to advising women with a family history of breast cancer. UK Cancer Family Study Group (UKCFSG). J Med Genet 2000;37:203-9.
85. Lobb E, Butow P, Meiser B, Barratt A, Kirk J, Gattas M, et al. The use of audiotapes in consultations with women from high risk breast cancer families: a randomised trial [Letter]. J Med Genet 2002;39:697-703.
86. Watson M, Duvivier V, Wade Walsh M, Ashley S, Davidson J, Papaikonomou M, et al. Family history of breast cancer: what do women understand and recall about their genetic risk? J Med Genet 1998;35:731-8.
87. Green MJ, Peterson SK, Baker MW, Harper GR, Friedman LC, Rubinstein WS, et al. Effect of a computer-based decision aid on knowledge, perceptions, and intentions about genetic testing for breast cancer susceptibility: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2004;292:442-52.
89. Antoniou A, Pharoah PD, Narod S, Risch HA, Eyfjord JE, Hopper JL, et al. Average risks of breast and ovarian cancer associated with BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations detected in case series unselected for family history: a combined analysis of 22 studies. Am J Hum Genet 2003;72:1117-30.
90. Ford D, Easton DF, Stratton M, Narod S, Goldgar D, Devilee P, et al. Genetic heterogeneity and penetrance analysis of the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes in breast cancer families. The Breast Cancer Linkage Consortium. Am J Hum Genet 1998;62:676-89.
91. Hopper JL, Southey MC, Dite GS, Jolley DJ, Giles GG, McCredie MR, et al. Population-based estimate of the average age-specific cumulative risk of breast cancer for a defined set of protein-truncating mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2. Australian Breast Cancer Family Study. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 1999;8:741-7.
92. Risch HA, McLaughlin JR, Cole DE, Rosen B, Bradley L, Kwan E, et al. Prevalence and penetrance of germline BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations in a population series of 649 women with ovarian cancer. Am J Hum Genet 2001;68: 700-10.
93. Eng C, Brody LC, Wagner TM, Devilee P, Vijg J, Szabo C, et al. Interpreting epidemiological research: blinded comparison of methods used to estimate the prevalence of inherited mutations in BRCA1. J Med Genet 2001;38: 824-33.
94. Gayther SA, Mangion J, Russell P, Seal S, Barfoot R, Ponder BA, et al. Variation of risks of breast and ovarian cancer associated with different germline mutations of the BRCA2 gene. Nat Genet 1997;15:103-5.
97. Satagopan JM, Offit K, Foulkes W, Robson ME, Wacholder S, Eng CM, et al. The lifetime risks of breast cancer in Ashkenazi Jewish carriers of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2001;10:467-73.
101. Malone KE, Daling JR, Neal C, Suter NM, O'Brien C, Cushing-Haugen K, et al. Frequency of BRCA1/BRCA2 mutations in a population-based sample of young breast carcinoma cases. Cancer 2000;88:1393-402.
104. Gayther SA, Russell P, Harrington P, Antoniou AC, Easton DF, Ponder BA. The contribution of germline BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations to familial ovarian cancer: no evidence for other ovarian cancer-susceptibility genes. Am J Hum Genet 1999;65:1021-9.
106. Brain K, Norman P, Gray J, Rogers C, Mansel R, Harper P. A randomized trial of specialist genetic assessment: psychological impact on women at different levels of familial breast cancer risk. Br J Cancer 2002;86:233-8.
109. Lerman C, Hughes C, Lemon SJ, Main D, Snyder C, Durham C, et al. What you don't know can hurt you: adverse psychologic effects in members of BRCA1-linked and BRCA2-linked families who decline genetic testing. J Clin Oncol 1998;16:1650-4.
110. Lobb EA, Butow PN, Barratt A, Meiser B, Gaff C, Young MA, et al. Communication and information-giving in high-risk breast cancer consultations: influence on patient outcomes. Br J Cancer 2004;90:321-7.
112. Smith KR, West JA, Croyle RT, Botkin JR. Familial context of genetic testing for cancer susceptibility: moderating effect of siblings' test results on psychological distress one to two weeks after BRCA1 mutation testing. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 1999;8:385-92.
113. Watson M, Lloyd S, Davidson J, Meyer L, Eeles R, Ebbs S, et al. The impact of genetic counseling on risk perception and mental health in women with a family history of breast cancer. Br J Cancer 1999;79:868-74.
115. Brekelmans CT, Seynaeve C, Bartels CC, Tilanus-Linthorst MM, Meijers- Heijboer EJ, Crepin CM, et al. Effectiveness of breast cancer surveillance in BRCA1/2 gene mutation carriers and women with high familial risk. J Clin Oncol 2001;19:924-30.
117. Gui GP, Hogben RK, Walsh G, A'Hern R, Eeles R. The incidence of breast cancer from screening women according to predicted family history risk: does annual clinical examination add to mammography? Eur J Cancer 2001;37: 1668-73.
119. Lai MS, Yen MF, Kuo HS, Koong SL, Chen TH, Duffy SW. Efficacy of breast-cancer screening for female relatives of breast-cancer-index cases: Taiwan multicentre cancer screening (TAMCAS). Int J Cancer 1998;78:21-6.
122. Saetersdal A, Dørum A, Heimdal K, Helgerud P, Sager EM, Bøhler P, et al. Inherited predisposition to breast carcinoma. Results of first round examination of 537 women at risk. Anticancer Res 1996;16:1989-92.
124. Warner E, Plewes DB, Hill KA, Causer PA, Zubovits JT, Jong RA, et al. Surveillance of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers with magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasound, mammography, and clinical breast examination. JAMA 2004;292:1317-25.
126. Scheuer L, Kauff N, Robson M, Kelly B, Barakat R, Satagopan J, et al. Outcome of preventive surgery and screening for breast and ovarian cancer in BRCA mutation carriers. J Clin Oncol 2002;20:1260-8.
127. Meijers-Heijboer H, van Geel B, van Putten WL, Henzen-Logmans SC, Seynaeve C, Menke-Pluymers MB, et al. Breast cancer after prophylactic bilateral mastectomy in women with a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation. N Engl J Med 2001;345:159-64.
129. Fracheboud J, de Koning HJ, Beemsterboer PM, Boer R, Hendriks JH, Verbeek AL, et al. Nation-wide breast cancer screening in The Netherlands: results of initial and subsequent screening 1990-1995. National Evaluation Team for Breast Cancer Screening. Int J Cancer 1998;75:694-8.
131. Bourne TH, Campbell S, Reynolds KM, Whitehead MI, Hampson J, Royston P, et al. Screening for early familial ovarian cancer with transvaginal ultrasonography and colour blood flow imaging. BMJ 1993;306:1025-9.
133. Cuzick J, Forbes J, Edwards R, Baum M, Cawthorn S, Coates A, et al. First results from the International Breast Cancer Intervention Study (IBIS-I): a randomised prevention trial. Lancet 2002;360:817-24.
134. Fisher B, Costantino JP, Wickerham DL, Redmond CK, Kavanah M, Cronin WM, et al. Tamoxifen for prevention of breast cancer: report of the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project P-1 Study. J Natl Cancer Inst 1998;90:1371-88.
135. Powles T, Eeles R, Ashley S, Easton D, Chang J, Dowsett M, et al. Interim analysis of the incidence of breast cancer in the Royal Marsden Hospital tamoxifen randomised chemoprevention trial. Lancet 1998;352:98-101.
136. Veronesi U, Maisonneuve P, Costa A, Sacchini V, Maltoni C, Robertson C, et al. Prevention of breast cancer with tamoxifen: preliminary findings from the Italian randomised trial among hysterectomised women. Italian Tamoxifen Prevention Study. Lancet 1998;352:93-7.
137. Cummings SR, Eckert S, Krueger KA, Grady D, Powles TJ, Cauley JA, et al. The effect of raloxifene on risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women: results from the MORE randomized trial. Multiple Outcomes of Raloxifene Evaluation. JAMA 1999;281:2189-97.
138. Phase III randomized study of tamoxifen and raloxifene (STAR) for the prevention of breast cancer. 2004. Accessed at www.cancer.gov/clinicaltrials/view_clinicaltrials.aspx?version.healthprofessional&cdrid.67081&protocolsearchid.884140 on 20 April 2004.
140. King MC, Wieand S, Hale K, Lee M, Walsh T, Owens K, et al. Tamoxifen and breast cancer incidence among women with inherited mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2: National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project (NSABP-P1) Breast Cancer Prevention Trial. JAMA 2001;286:2251-6.
141. Cauley JA, Norton L, Lippman ME, Eckert S, Krueger KA, Purdie DW, et al. Continued breast cancer risk reduction in postmenopausal women treated with raloxifene: 4-year results from the MORE trial. Multiple outcomes of raloxifene evaluation. Breast Cancer Res Treat 2001;65:125-34.
142. Cauley JA, Lucas FL, Kuller LH, Vogt MT, Browner WS, Cummings SR. Bone mineral density and risk of breast cancer in older women: the study of osteoporotic fractures. Study of Osteoporotic Fractures Research Group. JAMA 1996;276:1404-8.
143. Cauley JA, Lucas FL, Kuller LH, Stone K, Browner W, Cummings SR. Elevated serum estradiol and testosterone concentrations are associated with a high risk for breast cancer. Study of Osteoporotic Fractures Research Group. Ann Intern Med 1999;130:270-7.
144. Day R. Quality of life and tamoxifen in a breast cancer prevention trial: a summary of findings from the NSABP P-1 study. National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project. Ann NY Acad Sci 2001;949:143-50.
146. Whittemore AS, Harris R, Itnyre J. Characteristics relating to ovarian cancer risk: collaborative analysis of 12 US case-control studies. II. Invasive epithelial ovarian cancers in white women. Collaborative Ovarian Cancer Group. Am J Epidemiol 1992;136:1184-203.
147. Franceschi S, Parazzini F, Negri E, Booth M, La Vecchia C, Beral V, et al. Pooled analysis of 3 European case-control studies of epithelial ovarian cancer: III. Oral contraceptive use. Int J Cancer 1991;49:61-5.
148. Narod SA, Risch H, Moslehi R, Dørum A, Neuhausen S, Olsson H, et al. Oral contraceptives and the risk of hereditary ovarian cancer. Hereditary Ovarian Cancer Clinical Study Group. N Engl J Med 1998;339:424-8.
149. McGuire V, Felberg A, Mills M, Ostrow KL, DiCioccio R, John EM, et al. Relation of contraceptive and reproductive history to ovarian cancer risk in carriers and noncarriers of BRCA1 gene mutations. Am J Epidemiol 2004;160:613-8.
150. Grabrick DM, Hartmann LC, Cerhan JR, Vierkant RA, Therneau TM, Vachon CM, et al. Risk of breast cancer with oral contraceptive use in women with a family history of breast cancer. JAMA 2000;284:1791-8.
151. Ursin G, Henderson BE, Haile RW, Pike MC, Zhou N, Diep A, et al. Does oral contraceptive use increase the risk of breast cancer in women with BRCA1/BRCA2 mutations more than in other women? Cancer Res 1997;57: 3678-81.
156. Paley PJ, Swisher EM, Garcia RL, Agoff SN, Greer BE, Peters KL, et al. Occult cancer of the fallopian tube in BRCA-1 germline mutation carriers at prophylactic oophorectomy: a case for recommending hysterectomy at surgical prophylaxis. Gynecol Oncol 2001;80:176-80.
159. Piver MS, Jishi MF, Tsukada Y, Nava G. Primary peritoneal carcinoma after prophylactic oophorectomy in women with a family history of ovarian cancer. A report of the Gilda Radner Familial Ovarian Cancer Registry. Cancer 1993;71:2751-5.
161. Hartmann LC, Schaid DJ, Woods JE, Crotty TP, Myers JL, Arnold PG, et al. Efficacy of bilateral prophylactic mastectomy in women with a family history of breast cancer. N Engl J Med 1999;340:77-84.
162. Hartmann LC, Sellers TA, Schaid DJ, Frank TS, Soderberg CL, Sitta DL, et al. Efficacy of bilateral prophylactic mastectomy in BRCA1 and BRCA2 gene mutation carriers. J Natl Cancer Inst 2001;93:1633-7.
163. Rebbeck TR, Friebel T, Lynch HT, Neuhausen SL, van't Veer L, Garber JE, et al. Bilateral prophylactic mastectomy reduces breast cancer risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers: the PROSE Study Group. J Clin Oncol 2004; 22:1055-62.
164. Contant CM, Menke-Pluijmers MB, Seynaeve C, Meijers-Heijboer EJ, Klijn JG, Verhoog LC, et al. Clinical experience of prophylactic mastectomy followed by immediate breast reconstruction in women at hereditary risk of breast cancer (HB(O)C) or a proven BRCA1 and BRCA2 germ-line mutation. Eur J Surg Oncol 2002;28:627-32.
166. Rebbeck TR, Levin AM, Eisen A, Snyder C, Watson P, Cannon-Albright L, et al. Breast cancer risk after bilateral prophylactic oophorectomy in BRCA1 mutation carriers. J Natl Cancer Inst 1999;91:1475-9.
174. Rosenblatt KA, Thomas DB. Reduced risk of ovarian cancer in women with a tubal ligation or hysterectomy. The World Health Organization Collaborative Study of Neoplasia and Steroid Contraceptives. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 1996;5:933-5.
175. Narod SA, Sun P, Ghadirian P, Lynch H, Isaacs C, Garber J, et al. Tubal ligation and risk of ovarian cancer in carriers of BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations: a case-control study. Lancet 2001;357:1467-70.
179. Lerman C, Narod S, Schulman K, Hughes C, Gomez-Caminero A, Bonney G, et al. BRCA1 testing in families with hereditary breast-ovarian cancer. A prospective study of patient decisionmaking and outcomes. JAMA 1996;275: 1885-92.
180. Frost MH, Schaid DJ, Sellers TA, Slezak JM, Arnold PG, Woods JE, et al. Long-term satisfaction and psychological and social function following bilateral prophylactic mastectomy. JAMA 2000;284:319-24.
182. Tiller K, Meiser B, Butow P, Clifton M, Thewes B, Friedlander M, et al. Psychological impact of prophylactic oophorectomy in women at increased risk of developing ovarian cancer: a prospective study. Gynecol Oncol 2002;86:212-9.
183. Nathorst-Böös J, von Schoultz B, Carlström K. Elective ovarian removal and estrogen replacement therapy—effects on sexual life, psychological well-being and androgen status. J Psychosom Obstet Gynaecol 1993;14:283-93.
From Oregon Health & Science University and Kaiser Permanente Center for Health Research, Portland, Oregon.
Acknowledgments: The authors thank Miranda Walker, BA; Christina Bougatsos, BS; Andrew Hamilton, M.L.S., M.S.; Mark Helfand, M.D., M.P.H.; Wylie Burke, M.D., Ph.D.; Gurvaneet Randhawa, M.D., M.P.H.; members of the USPSTF; and reviewers for their contributions to this project.
Grant Support: This study was conducted by the Oregon Evidence-based Practice Center under contract to the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, contract 290-02-0024, Task Order no. 2, Rockville, Maryland.
Requests for Single Reprints: Heidi D. Nelson, M.D., M.P.H., Oregon Health & Science University, Mail Code BICC 504, 3181 Southwest Sam Jackson Park Road, Portland, OR 97239; E-mail, email@example.com.
Current Author Addresses: Dr. Nelson and Ms. Hoyt Huffman: Oregon Health & Science University, Mail Code BICC, 3181 Southwest Sam Jackson Park Road, Portland, OR 97239.
Dr. Fu: Oregon Health & Science University, Mail Code CB 669, 3181 SW Sam Jackson Park Road, Portland, OR 97239.
Dr. Harris: Kaiser Permanente Center for Health Research, 3800 North Interstate Avenue, Portland, OR 97227.
Current as of September 2005
Nelson H, Huffman L, Fu R, Harris E. Genetic Risk Assessment and BRCA Mutation Testing for Breast and Ovarian Cancer Susceptibility: Systematic Evidence Review for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force September 2005. http://www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/uspstf05/brcagen/brcagenrev.htm