U.S. Preventive Services Task Force banner
U.S. Preventive Services Task Force


Screening for Prostate Cancer (continued)

References

1. American Cancer Society. Cancer Facts & Figures 2010. Atlanta, GA: American Cancer Society; 2010.

2. National Cancer Institute. SEER Stat Fact Sheets: Prostate. Bethesda, MD: National Cancer Institute; 2010.

3. U.S. Cancer Statistics Working Group. United States Cancer Statistics: 1999–2007 Incidence and Mortality Web-based Report. Atlanta: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and National Cancer Institute; 2010. Accessed at www.cdc.gov/uscs on 27 September 2011.

4. Lin K, Lipsitz R, Miller T, Janakiraman S; U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Benefits and harms of prostate-specific antigen screening for prostate cancer: an evidence update for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Ann Intern Med. 2008;149:192-9. [PMID: 18678846]

5. U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Screening for prostate cancer: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement. Ann Intern Med. 2008;149:185-91. [PMID: 18678845]

6. Andriole GL, Crawford ED, Grubb RL 3rd, Buys SS, Chia D, Church TR, et al; PLCO Project Team. Mortality results from a randomized prostate-cancer screening trial. N Engl J Med. 2009;360:1310-9. [PMID: 19297565]

7. Schröder FH, Hugosson J, Roobol MJ, Tammela TL, Ciatto S, Nelen V, et al; ERSPC Investigators. Screening and prostate-cancer mortality in a randomized European study. N Engl J Med. 2009;360:1320-8. [PMID: 19297566]

8. Harris R, Lohr KN. Screening for prostate cancer: an update of the evidence for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Ann Intern Med. 2002;137:917-29. [PMID: 12458993]

9. Lin K, Croswell JM, Koenig HC, Lam C, Maltz A. Prostate-specific antigen-based screening for prostate cancer: an evidence update for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Evidence Syntehsis No. 90. Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality; 2011.

10. Chou R, Dana T, Bougatsos C, Fu R, Blazina I, Gleitsmann K, et al. Treatments for localized prostate cancer: systematic review to update the 2002 U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation. Evidence Synthesis No. 91. Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality; 2011.

11. Cooperberg MR, Broering JM, Carroll PR. Time trends and local variation in primary treatment of localized prostate cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2010;28:1117-23. [PMID: 20124165]

12. Welch HG, Albertsen PC. Prostate cancer diagnosis and treatment after the introduction of prostate-specific antigen screening: 1986-2005. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2009;101:1325-9. [PMID: 19720969]

13. Shao YH, Albertsen PC, Roberts CB, Lin Y, Mehta AR, Stein MN, et al. Risk profiles and treatment patterns among men diagnosed as having prostate cancer and a prostate-specific antigen level below 4.0 ng/ml. Arch Intern Med. 2010;170:1256-61. [PMID: 20660846]

14. Thompson I, Thrasher JB, Aus G, Burnett AL, Canby-Hagino ED, Cookson MS, et al; AUA Prostate Cancer Clinical Guideline Update Panel. Guideline for the management of clinically localized prostate cancer: 2007 update. J Urol. 2007;177:2106-31. [PMID: 17509297]

15. Harris RP, Helfand M, Woolf SH, Lohr KN, Mulrow CD, Teutsch SM, et al; Methods Work Group, Third US Preventive Services Task Force. Current methods of the US Preventive Services Task Force: a review of the process. Am J Prev Med. 2001;20:21-35. [PMID: 11306229]

16. Kjellman A, Akre O, Norming U, Törnblom M, Gustafsson O. 15-year followup of a population based prostate cancer screening study. J Urol. 2009;181:1615-21; discussion 1621. [PMID: 19233435]

17. Labrie F, Candas B, Cusan L, Gomez JL, Bélanger A, Brousseau G, et al. Screening decreases prostate cancer mortality: 11-year follow-up of the 1988 Quebec prospective randomized controlled trial. Prostate. 2004;59:311-8. [PMID: 15042607]

18. Labrie F, Candas B, Dupont A, Cusan L, Gomez JL, Suburu RE, et al. Screening decreases prostate cancer death: first analysis of the 1988 Quebec prospective randomized controlled trial. Prostate. 1999;38:83-91. [PMID: 9973093]

19. Sandblom G, Varenhorst E, Löfman O, Rosell J, Carlsson P. Clinical consequences of screening for prostate cancer: 15 years follow-up of a randomised controlled trial in Sweden. Eur Urol. 2004;46:717-23; discussion 724. [PMID: 15548438]

20. Sandblom G, Varenhorst E, Rosell J, Löfman O, Carlsson P. Randomised prostate cancer screening trial: 20 year follow-up. BMJ. 2011;342:d1539. [PMID: 21454449]

21. Hugosson J, Carlsson S, Aus G, Bergdahl S, Khatami A, Lodding P, et al. Mortality results from the Göteborg randomised population-based prostate-cancer screening trial. Lancet Oncol. 2010;11:725-32. [PMID: 20598634]

22. Bill-Axelson A, Holmberg L, Filén F, Ruutu M, Garmo H, Busch C, et al; Scandinavian Prostate Cancer Group Study Number 4. Radical prostatectomy versus watchful waiting in localized prostate cancer: the Scandinavian prostate cancer group-4 randomized trial. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2008;100:1144-54. [PMID: 18695132]

23. Bill-Axelson A, Holmberg L, Ruutu M, Garmo H, Stark JR, Busch C, et al; SPCG-4 Investigators. Radical prostatectomy versus watchful waiting in early prostate cancer. N Engl J Med. 2011;364:1708-17. [PMID: 21542742]

24. Bill-Axelson A, Holmberg L, Ruutu M, Häggman M, Andersson SO, Bratell S, et al; Scandinavian Prostate Cancer Group Study No. 4. Radical prostatectomy versus watchful waiting in early prostate cancer. N Engl J Med. 2005;352:1977-84. [PMID: 15888698]

25. Byar DP, Corle DK. VACURG randomised trial of radical prostatectomy for stages I and II prostatic cancer. Veterans Administration Cooperative Urological Research Group. Urology. 1981;17:7-11. [PMID: 7010763]

26. Graversen PH, Nielsen KT, Gasser TC, Corle DK, Madsen PO. Radical prostatectomy versus expectant primary treatment in stages I and II prostatic cancer. A fifteen-year follow-up. Urology. 1990;36:493-8. [PMID: 2247914]

27. Holmberg L, Bill-Axelson A, Garmo H, Palmgren J, Norlén BJ, Adami HO, et al; SPCG-4 Study Group. Prognostic markers under watchful waiting and radical prostatectomy. Hematol Oncol Clin North Am. 2006;20:845-55. [PMID: 16861118]

28. Holmberg L, Bill-Axelson A, Helgesen F, Salo JO, Folmerz P, Häggman M, et al; Scandinavian Prostatic Cancer Group Study Number 4. A randomized trial comparing radical prostatectomy with watchful waiting in early prostate cancer. N Engl J Med. 2002;347:781-9. [PMID: 12226148]

29. Iversen P, Madsen PO, Corle DK. Radical prostatectomy versus expectant treatment for early carcinoma of the prostate. Twenty-three year follow-up of a prospective randomized study. Scand J Urol Nephrol Suppl. 1995;172:65-72. [PMID: 8578259]

30. Albertsen PC, Hanley JA, Penson DF, Barrows G, Fine J. 13-year outcomes following treatment for clinically localized prostate cancer in a population based cohort. J Urol. 2007;177:932-6. [PMID: 17296379]

31. Ladjevardi S, Sandblom G, Berglund A, Varenhorst E. Tumour grade, treatment, and relative survival in a population-based cohort of men with potentially curable prostate cancer. Eur Urol. 2010;57:631-8. [PMID: 19299069]

32. Lu-Yao GL, Albertsen PC, Moore DF, Shih W, Lin Y, DiPaola RS, et al. Survival following primary androgen deprivation therapy among men with localized prostate cancer. JAMA. 2008;300:173-81. [PMID: 18612114]

33. Merglen A, Schmidlin F, Fioretta G, Verkooijen HM, Rapiti E, Zanetti R, et al. Short- and long-term mortality with localized prostate cancer. Arch Intern Med. 2007;167:1944-50. [PMID: 17923593]

34. Schymura MJ, Kahn AR, German RR, Hsieh MC, Cress RD, Finch JL, et al. Factors associated with initial treatment and survival for clinically localized prostate cancer: results from the CDC-NPCR Patterns of Care Study (PoC1). BMC Cancer. 2010;10:152. [PMID: 20403178]

35. Stattin P, Holmberg E, Johansson JE, Holmberg L, Adolfsson J, Hugosson J; National Prostate Cancer Register (NPCR) of Sweden. Outcomes in localized prostate cancer: National Prostate Cancer Register of Sweden follow-up study. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2010;102:950-8. [PMID: 20562373]

36. Tewari A, Divine G, Chang P, Shemtov MM, Milowsky M, Nanus D, et al. Long-term survival in men with high grade prostate cancer: a comparison between conservative treatment, radiation therapy and radical prostatectomy—a propensity scoring approach. J Urol. 2007;177:911-5. [PMID: 17296374]

37. Wong YN, Mitra N, Hudes G, Localio R, Schwartz JS, Wan F, et al. Survival associated with treatment vs observation of localized prostate cancer in elderly men. JAMA. 2006;296:2683-93. [PMID: 17164454]

38. Zhou EH, Ellis RJ, Cherullo E, Colussi V, Xu F, Chen WD, et al. Radiotherapy and survival in prostate cancer patients: a population-based study. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2009;73:15-23. [PMID: 18538495]

39. Fransson P, Damber JE, Tomic R, Modig H, Nyberg G, Widmark A. Quality of life and symptoms in a randomized trial of radiotherapy versus deferred treatment of localized prostate carcinoma. Cancer. 2001;92:3111-9. [PMID: 11753990]

40. Fransson P, Damber JE, Widmark A. Health-related quality of life 10 years after external beam radiotherapy or watchful waiting in patients with localized prostate cancer. Scand J Urol Nephrol. 2009;43:119-26. [PMID: 18985545]

41. Johansson E, Bill-Axelson A, Holmberg L, Onelöv E, Johansson JE, Steineck G; Scandinavian Prostate Cancer Group Study No 4. Time, symptom burden, androgen deprivation, and self-assessed quality of life after radical prostatectomy or watchful waiting: the Randomized Scandinavian Prostate Cancer Group Study Number 4 (SPCG-4) clinical trial. Eur Urol. 2009;55:422-30. [PMID: 18783877]

42. Steineck G, Helgesen F, Adolfsson J, Dickman PW, Johansson JE, Norlén BJ, et al; Scandinavian Prostatic Cancer Group Study Number 4. Quality of life after radical prostatectomy or watchful waiting. N Engl J Med. 2002;347:790-6. [PMID: 12226149]

43. Bacon CG, Giovannucci E, Testa M, Kawachi I. The impact of cancer treatment on quality of life outcomes for patients with localized prostate cancer. J Urol. 2001;166:1804-10. [PMID: 11586228]

44. Choo R, Long J, Gray R, Morton G, Gardner S, Danjoux C. Prospective survey of sexual function among patients with clinically localized prostate cancer referred for definitive radiotherapy and the impact of radiotherapy on sexual function. Support Care Cancer. 2010;18:715-22. [PMID: 19506916]

45. Clark JA, Talcott JA. Symptom indexes to assess outcomes of treatment for early prostate cancer. Med Care. 2001;39:1118-30. [PMID: 11567174]

46. Galbraith ME, Ramirez JM, Pedro LW. Quality of life, health outcomes, and identity for patients with prostate cancer in five different treatment groups. Oncol Nurs Forum. 2001;28:551-60. [PMID: 11338762]

47. Hoffman RM, Hunt WC, Gilliland FD, Stephenson RA, Potosky AL. Patient satisfaction with treatment decisions for clinically localized prostate carcinoma. Results from the Prostate Cancer Outcomes Study. Cancer. 2003;97:1653-62. [PMID: 12655522]

48. Litwin MS, Hays RD, Fink A, Ganz PA, Leake B, Leach GE, et al. Quality-of-life outcomes in men treated for localized prostate cancer. JAMA. 1995;273:129-35. [PMID: 7799493]

49. Litwin MS. Health-related quality of life after treatment for localized prostate cancer. Cancer. 1995;75:2000-3.

50. Litwin MS, Lubeck DP, Spitalny GM, Henning JM, Carroll PR. Mental health in men treated for early stage prostate carcinoma: a posttreatment, longitudinal quality of life analysis from the Cancer of the Prostate Strategic Urologic Research Endeavor. Cancer. 2002;95:54-60. [PMID: 12115317]

51. Lubeck DP, Litwin MS, Henning JM, Stoddard ML, Flanders SC, Carroll PR. Changes in health-related quality of life in the first year after treatment for prostate cancer: results from CaPSURE. Urology. 1999;53:180-6. [PMID: 9886609]]

52. Potosky AL, Reeve BB, Clegg LX, Hoffman RM, Stephenson RA, Albertsen PC, et al. Quality of life following localized prostate cancer treated initially with androgen deprivation therapy or no therapy. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2002;94:430-7. [PMID: 11904315]

53. Schapira MM, Lawrence WF, Katz DA, McAuliffe TL, Nattinger AB. Effect of treatment on quality of life among men with clinically localized prostate cancer. Med Care. 2001;39:243-53. [PMID: 11242319]

54. Siegel T, Moul JW, Spevak M, Alvord WG, Costabile RA. The development of erectile dysfunction in men treated for prostate cancer. J Urol. 2001;165:430-5. [PMID: 11176390]

55. Smith DS, Carvalhal GF, Schneider K, Krygiel J, Yan Y, Catalona WJ. Quality-of-life outcomes for men with prostate carcinoma detected by screening. Cancer. 2000;88:1454-63. [PMID: 10717630]

56. Smith DP, King MT, Egger S, Berry MP, Stricker PD, Cozzi P, et al. Quality of life three years after diagnosis of localised prostate cancer: population based cohort study. BMJ. 2009;339:b4817. [PMID: 19945997]

57. Talcott JA, Manola J, Clark JA, Kaplan I, Beard CJ, Mitchell SP, et al. Time course and predictors of symptoms after primary prostate cancer therapy. J Clin Oncol. 2003;21:3979-86. [PMID: 14581420]

58. Thong MS, Mols F, Kil PJ, Korfage IJ, van de Poll-Franse LV. Prostate cancer survivors who would be eligible for active surveillance but were either treated with radiotherapy or managed expectantly: comparisons on long-term quality of life and symptom burden. BJU Int. 2010;105:652-8. [PMID: 19747357]

59. Alibhai SM, Leach M, Tomlinson G, Krahn MD, Fleshner N, Holowaty E, et al. 30-day mortality and major complications after radical prostatectomy: influence of age and comorbidity. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2005;97:1525-32. [PMID: 16234566]

60. Yao SL, Lu-Yao G. Population-based study of relationships between hospital volume of prostatectomies, patient outcomes, and length of hospital stay. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1999;91:1950-6. [PMID: 10564679]

61. Begg CB, Riedel ER, Bach PB, Kattan MW, Schrag D, Warren JL, et al. Variations in morbidity after radical prostatectomy. N Engl J Med. 2002;346:1138-44. [PMID: 11948274]

62. Walz J, Montorsi F, Jeldres C, Suardi N, Shariat SF, Perrotte P, et al. The effect of surgical volume, age and comorbidities on 30-day mortality after radical prostatectomy: a population-based analysis of 9208 consecutive cases. BJU Int. 2008;101:826-32. [PMID: 18321316]

63. Augustin H, Hammerer P, Graefen M, Palisaar J, Noldus J, Fernandez S, et al. Intraoperative and perioperative morbidity of contemporary radical retropubic prostatectomy in a consecutive series of 1243 patients: results of a single center between 1999 and 2002. Eur Urol. 2003;43:113-8. [PMID: 12565767]

64. Rabbani F, Yunis LH, Pinochet R, Nogueira L, Vora KC, Eastham JA, et al. Comprehensive standardized report of complications of retropubic and laparoscopic radical prostatectomy. Eur Urol. 2010;57:371-86. [PMID: 19945779]

65. Kilpeläinen TP, Tammela TL, Määttänen L, Kujala P, Stenman UH, Ala-Opas M, et al. False-positive screening results in the Finnish prostate cancer screening trial. Br J Cancer. 2010;102:469-74. [PMID: 20051951]

66. Croswell JM, Kramer BS, Kreimer AR, Prorok PC, Xu JL, Baker SG, et al. Cumulative incidence of false-positive results in repeated, multimodal cancer screening. Ann Fam Med. 2009;7:212-22. [PMID: 19433838]

67. Raaijmakers R, Kirkels WJ, Roobol MJ, Wildhagen MF, Schrder FH. Complication rates and risk factors of 5802 transrectal ultrasound-guided sextant biopsies of the prostate within a population-based screening program. Urology. 2002;60:826-30. [PMID: 12429309]

68. Hu JC, Wang Q, Pashos CL, Lipsitz SR, Keating NL. Utilization and outcomes of minimally invasive radical prostatectomy. J Clin Oncol. 2008;26:2278-84. [PMID: 18467718]

69. Djulbegovic M, Beyth RJ, Neuberger MM, Stoffs TL, Vieweg J, Djulbegovic B, et al. Screening for prostate cancer: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. BMJ. 2010;341:c4543. [PMID: 20843937]

70. Ilic D, O'Connor D, Green S, Wilt TJ. Screening for prostate cancer: an updated Cochrane systematic review. BJU Int. 2011;107:882-91. [PMID: 21392207]

71. Draisma G, Etzioni R, Tsodikov A, Mariotto A, Wever E, Gulati R, et al. Lead time and overdiagnosis in prostate-specific antigen screening: importance of methods and context. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2009;101:374-83. [PMID: 19276453]

72. Draisma G, Boer R, Otto SJ, van der Cruijsen IW, Damhuis RA, Schröder FH, et al. Lead times and overdetection due to prostate-specific antigen screening: estimates from the European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2003;95:868-78. [PMID: 12813170]

73. Abdel-Wahab M, Reis IM, Hamilton K. Second primary cancer after radiotherapy for prostate cancer—-a SEER analysis of brachytherapy versus external beam radiotherapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2008;72:58-68. [PMID: 18374503]

74. Nieder AM, Porter MP, Soloway MS. Radiation therapy for prostate cancer increases subsequent risk of bladder and rectal cancer: a population based cohort study. J Urol. 2008;180:2005-9; discussion 2009-10. [PMID: 18801517]

75. American Urological Association. Prostate-specific antigen best practice statement: 2009 update. Accessed at www.auanet.org/content/guidelines-and-quality-care/clinical-guidelines/main-reports/psa09.pdf Exit Disclaimer on 22 September 2011.

76. National Comprehensive Cancer Network. Prostate cancer early detection. NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology. 2010. Accessed at www.nccn.org Exit Disclaimer on 22 September 2011.

77. Keating NL, O'Malley AJ, Freedland SJ, Smith MR. Diabetes and cardiovascular disease during androgen deprivation therapy: observational study of veterans with prostate cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2010;102:39-46. [PMID: 19996060]

78. Keating NL, O'Malley AJ, Smith MR. Diabetes and cardiovascular disease during androgen deprivation therapy for prostate cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2006;24:4448-56. [PMID: 16983113]

79. Shahinian VB, Kuo YF, Freeman JL, Goodwin JS. Risk of fracture after androgen deprivation for prostate cancer. N Engl J Med. 2005;352:154-64. [PMID: 15647578]

80. Chou R, Aronson N, Atkins D, Ismaila AS, Santaguida P, Smith DH, et al. AHRQ series paper 4: assessing harms when comparing medical interventions: AHRQ and the effective health-care program. J Clin Epidemiol. 2010;63:502-12. [PMID: 18823754]

81. Wilt TJ, Brawer MK, Barry MJ, Jones KM, Kwon Y, Gingrich JR, et al. The Prostate Cancer Intervention Versus Observation Trial: VA/NCI/AHRQ Cooperative Studies Program #407 (PIVOT): design and baseline results of a randomized controlled trial comparing radical prostatectomy to watchful waiting for men with clinically localized prostate cancer. Contemp Clin Trials. 2009;30:81-7. [PMID: 18783735]

Return to Contents

Copyright and Source Information

Source: This article was first published in Annals of Internal Medicine (Ann Intern Med 2011 Oct 7. [Epub ahead of print]).

Acknowledgment: The authors thank Mary Barton, MD, MPP, Ned Calonge, MD, MPH, and U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Leads Michael LeFevre, MD, MSPH, Rosanne Leipzig, MD, PhD, and Timothy Wilt, MD, MPH, for their contributions to this report.

Grant Support: By the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (contract number HHSA-290-2007-10057-I-EPC3, Task Order No. 3), Rockville, Maryland.

Potential Conflicts of Interest: Disclosures can be viewed at www.acponline.org/authors/icmje/ConflictOfInterestForms.do?msNum=M11-1085.

Requests for Single Reprints: Roger Chou, MD, Oregon Health & Science University, Mailcode BICC, 3181 SW Sam Jackson Park Road, Portland, OR 97239; e-mail, chour@ohsu.edu.

Current author addresses and author contributions are available at http://www.annals.org. Exit Disclaimer

AHRQ Publication No. 12-05160-EF-3
Current as of October 2011

Return to Contents


Internet Citation:

Chou R, Croswell JM, Dana T, Bougatsos C, Blazina I, Fu R, Gleitsmann K, Koenig HC, Lam C, Maltz A, Rugge JB, Lin K. Screening for Prostate Cancer: A Review of the Evidence for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. AHRQ Publication No. 12-05160-EF-3. October 2011. http://www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/prostatecancerscreening/prostateart.htm


 


USPSTF Program Office   540 Gaither Road, Rockville, MD 20850