U.S. Preventive Services Task Force banner
U.S. Preventive Services Task Force


References

1. Recommendations for prevention and control of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and HCV-related chronic disease. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. MMWR—Morbidity & Mortality Weekly Report 1998;47(RR-19):1-39.

2. Dubois F, Desenclos JC, Mariotte N, Goudeau A. Hepatitis C in a French population-based survey, 1994: seroprevalence, frequency of viremia, genotype distribution, and risk factors. The Collaborative Study Group. Hepatology 1997;25(6):1490-6.

3. Alter MJ, Kruszon-Moran D, Nainan OV, et al. The prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection in the United States, 1988 through 1994. New England Journal of Medicine 1999;341(8):556-62.

4. Wiese M, Berr F, Lafrenz M, Porst H, Oesen U. Low frequency of cirrhosis in a hepatitis C (genotype 1b) single-source outbreak in Germany: a 20-year multicenter study. Hepatology 2000;32(1):91-6.

5. Kenny-Walsh E. Clinical outcomes after hepatitis C infection from contaminated anti-D immune globulin. Irish Hepatology Research Group. New England Journal of Medicine 1999;340(16):1228-33.

6. Barrett S, Goh J, Coughlan B, et al. The natural course of hepatitis C virus infection after 22 years in a unique homogenous cohort: spontaneous viral clearance and chronic HCV infection. Gut 2001;49(3):423-30.

7. Culver DH, Alter MJ, Mullan RJ, Margolis HS. Evaluation of the effectiveness of targeted lookback for HCV infection in the United States—interim results. Transfusion 2000;40(10):1176-81.

8. Singer ME, Younossi ZM. Cost effectiveness of screening for hepatitis C virus in asymptomatic, average-risk adults. American Journal of Medicine 2001;111(8):614-21.

9. Gordon FD. Cost-effectiveness of screening patients for hepatitis C. American Journal of Medicine 1999;107(6B):36S-40S.

10. Koff RS. Impaired health-related quality of life in chronic hepatitis C: the how, but not the why. Hepatology 1999;29(1):277-279.

11. Foster GR, Goldin RD, Thomas HC. Chronic hepatitis C virus infection causes a significant reduction in quality of life in the absence of cirrhosis. Hepatology 1998;27:209-212.

12. Puoti C, Castellacci R, Montagnese F. Hepatitis C virus carriers with persistently normal aminotransferase levels: healthy people or true patients? Digestive & Liver Disease 2000;32(7):634-43.

13. Seeff LB. Natural history of chronic hepatitis C. Hepatology 2002;36:S35-S46.

14. Freeman AJ, Dore GJ, Law MG, et al. Estimating progression to cirrhosis in chronic hepatitis C virus infection. Hepatology 2001;34:809-816.

15. Poynard T, Aubert A, Lazizi Y, et al. Independent risk factors for hepatocellular carcinoma in French drinkers. Hepatology 1991;13(5):896-901.

16. Harris DR, Gonin R, Alter HJ, et al. The relationship of acute transfusion-associated hepatitis to the development of cirrhosis in the presence of alcohol abuse. Annals of Internal Medicine 2001;134(2):120-124.

17. Peters MG, A. TN. Alcohol use and hepatitis C. Hepatology 2002;36(5 Suppl 1):S220-5.

18. Wiley TE, McCarthy M, Breidi L, McCarthy M, Layden TJ. Impact of alcohol on the histological and clinical progression of hepatitis C infection. Hepatology 1998;28(3):805-809.

19. Pessione F, Degos F, Marcellin P, et al. Effect of alcohol consumption on serum hepatitis C virus RNA and histological lesions in chronic hepatitis C. Hepatology 1998;27(6):1717-1722.

20. Caldwell SH, Jeffer LJ, Ditomaso A, et al. Antibody to hepatitis C is common among patients with alcohol liver disease with and without risk factors. American Journal of Gastroenterology 1991;86(9):1219-1223.

21. Degos F. Hepatitis C and alcohol. Journal of Hepatology 1999;31(Suppl 1):113-8.

22. Lesens O, Deschenes M, Steben M, Belanger G, Tsoukas CM. Hepatitis C virus is related to progressive liver disease in human immunodeficiency virus-positive hemophiliacs and should be treated as an opportunistic infection. Journal of Infectious Diseases 1999;179(5):1254-8.

23. Soto B, Sanchez-Quijano A, Rodrigo L, et al. Human immunodeficiency virus infection modifies the natural history of chronic parenterally-acquired hepatitis C with an unusually rapid progression to cirrhosis. Journal of Hepatology 1997;26(1):1-5.

24. Thomas DL, Shih JW, Alter HJ, et al. Effect of human immunodeficiency virus on hepatitis C virus infection among injecting drug users. Journal of Infectious Diseases 1996;174(4):690-5.

25. Koff RS. Risks associated with hepatitis A and hepatitis B in patients with hepatitis C. Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology 2001;33(1):20-6.

26. Zarski JP, Bohn B, Bastie A, et al. Characteristics of patients with dual infection by hepatitis B and C viruses. Journal of Hepatology 1998;28(1):27-33.

27. Adinolfi LE, Gambardella M, Andreana A, Tripodi MF, Utili R, Ruggiero G. Steatosis accelerates the progression of liver damage of chronic hepatitis C patients and correlates with specific HCV genotype and visceral obesity. Hepatology 2001;33(6):1358-64.

28. Roudot-Thoraval F, Bastie A, Pawlotsky JM, Dhumeaux D. Epidemiological factors affecting the severity of hepatitis C virus-related liver disease: a French survey of 6,664 patients. Hepatology 1997;26:485-490.

29. Gordon SC, Bayati N, Silverman AL. Clinical outcome of hepatitis C as a function of mode of transmission. Hepatology 1998;28(2):562-7.

30. Gordon SC, Elloway RS, Long JC, Dmuchowski CF. The pathology of hepatitis C as a function of mode of transmission: blood transfusion vs. intravenous drug use. Hepatology 1993;18(6):1338-43.

31. Prati D, Capelli C, Zanella A, et al. Influence of different hepatitis C virus genotypes on the course of asymptomatic hepatitis C virus infection. Gastroenterology 1996;110:178-183.

32. Wiley TE, Brown J, Chan J. Hepatitis C in African Americans: its natural history and histological progression. American Journal of Gastroenterology 2002;97(3):700-706.

33. Gebo K, Jenckes M, Chander G, et al. (Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality). Management of Chronic Hepatitis C. Evidence Report/Technology Assessment No. 60. AHRQ Publication No. 02-E030. 2002.

34. Carithers RL, Jr., Marquardt A, Gretch DR. Diagnostic testing for hepatitis C. Seminars in Liver Disease 2000;20(2):159-71.

35. Harris RP, Helfand M, Woolf SH, et al. Current methods of the third U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 2001;20(3S):21-35.

36. Chou R, Clark EC, Helfand M. Screening for hepatitis C: systematic evidence review for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality; 2003.

37. Bellentani S, Pozzato G, Saccoccio G, et al. Clinical course and risk factors of hepatitis C virus related liver disease in the general population: report from the Dionysos study. Gut 1999;44(6):874-80.

38. Kaur S, Rybicki L, Bacon BR, Gollan JL, Rustgi VK, Carey WD. Performance characteristics and results of a large-scale screening program for viral hepatitis and risk factors associated with exposure to viral hepatitis B and C: results of the National Hepatitis Screening Survey. National Hepatitis Surveillance Group. Hepatology 1996;24(5):979-86.

39. Cheung RC. Epidemiology of hepatitis C virus infection in American veterans. American Journal of Gastroenterology 2000;95(3):740-47.

40. Austin GE, Jensen B, Leete J, et al. Prevalence of hepatitis C virus seropositivity among hospitalized US veterans. American Journal of the Medical Sciences 2000;319(6):353-359.

41. Gore SM, Bird AG, Cameron SO, Hutchinson SJ, Burns SM, Goldberg DJ. Prevalence of hepatitis C in prisons: WASH-C surveillance linked to self-reported risk behaviours. QJM 1999;92:25-32.

42. Prefontaine RG, Chaudhary RK, Mathias RG. Analysis of risk factors associated with hepatitis B and C infections in correctional institutions in British Columbia. Canadian Journal of Infectious Disease 1994;5:153-156.

43. Roy E, Haley N, Leclerc P, Boivin JF, Cedras L, Vincelette J. Risk factors for hepatitis C virus infection among street youths. CMAJ 2001;165(5):557-60.

44. Osmond DH, Padian NS, Sheppard HW, Glass S, Shiboski SC, Reingold A. Risk factors for hepatitis C virus seropositivity in heterosexual couples. JAMA 1993;269:361-365.

45. Zylberberg H, Thiers V, Lagorce D, et al. Epidemiological and virological analysis of couples infected with hepatitis C virus. Gut 1999;45(1):112-6.

46. Magriples U, Bernstein P, Snyder E, Copel JA. Can risk factor screening predict hepatitis C antibody reactivity? American Journal of Perinatology 1998;15(6):395-8.

47. Neal KR, Jones DA, Killey D, James V. Risk factors for hepatitis C virus infection. A case-control study of blood donors in the Trent Region (UK). Epidemiology & Infection 1994;112(3):595-601.

48. Kaldor JM, Archer GT, Buring ML, et al. Risk factors for hepatitis C virus infection in blood donors: a case-control study. Medical Journal of Australia 1992;157(4):227-30.

49. Gunn RA, Murray PJ, Ackers ML, Hardison WG, Margolis HS. Screening for chronic hepatitis B and C virus infections in an urban sexually transmitted disease clinic: rationale for integrating services. Sexually Transmitted Diseases 2001;28(3):166-70.

50. Stary A, Kopp W, Hofmann H, Heller-Vitouch C, Kunz C. Seroepidemiologic study of hepatitis C virus in sexually transmitted disease risk groups. Sexually Transmitted Diseases 1992;19(5):252-8.

51. Weinstock HS, Bolan G, Reingold AL, Polish LB. Hepatitis C virus infection among patients attending a clinic for sexually transmitted diseases. JAMA 1993;269:392-394.

52. Bell J, Batey RG, Farrell GC, Crewe EB, Cunningham AL, Byth K. Hepatitis C virus in intravenous drug users. Medical Journal of Australia 1990;153(5):274-6.

53. Villano SA, Vlahov D, Nelson KE, Lyles CM, Cohn S, Thomas DL. Incidence and risk factors for hepatitis C among injection drug users in Baltimore, Maryland. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 1997;35(12):3274-7.

54. Patrick DM, Tyndall MW, Cornelisse PG, et al. Incidence of hepatitis C virus infection among injection drug users during an outbreak of HIV infection. CMAJ 2001;165(7):889-95.

55. Alter MJ, Hadler SC, Judson FN, et al. Risk factors for acute non-A, non-B hepatitis in the United States and association with hepatitis C virus infection. JAMA 1990;264(17):2231-2235.

56. Alter MJ. Epidemiology of hepatitis C. Hepatology 1997;26(3 Suppl 1):62S-65S.

57. Alter MJ, Coleman PJ, Alexander WJ, et al. Importance of heterosexual activity in the transmission of hepatitis B and non-A, non-B hepatitis. JAMA 1989;262(9):1201-1205.

58. Salleras L, Bruguera M, Vidal J, et al. Importance of sexual transmission of hepatitis C virus in seropositive pregnant women: a case-control study. Journal of Medical Virology 1997;52:164-167.

59. Feldman JG, Minkoff H, Landesman S, Dehovitz J. Heterosexual transmission of hepatitis C, hepatitis B, and HIV-1 in a sample of inner city women. Sexually Transmitted Diseases 2000;27(6):338-42.

60. Thomas DL, Zenilman JM, Alter HJ, et al. Sexual transmission of hepatitis C virus among patients attending sexually transmitted diseases clinics in Baltimore—an analysis of 309 sex partnerships. Journal of Infectious Diseases 1995;171(4):768-75.

61. Terrault NA. Sexual activity as a risk factor for hepatitis C. Hepatology 2002;36:S99-S105.

62. Akahane Y, Kojima M, Sugai Y, et al. Hepatitis C virus infection in spouses of patients with type C chronic liver disease. Annals of Internal Medicine 1994;120(9):748-752.

63. Kao JH, Chen PJ, Yang PM, et al. Intrafamilial transmission of hepatitis C virus: the important role of infections between spouses. Journal of Infectious Diseases 1992;166:900-903.

64. Kumar RM. Interspousal and intrafamilial transmission of hepatitis C virus: a myth or a concern? Obstetrics & Gynecology 1998;91(3):426-31.

65. Seeff LB, Alter HJ. Spousal transmission of the hepatitis C virus? Annals of Internal Medicine 1994;120(9):807-9.

66. Shev S, Widell A, Bergstrom T, Hermodsson S, Lindholm A, Norkrans G. Herpes simplex virus-2 may increase susceptibility of the sexual transmission of hepatitis C. Sexually Transmitted Diseases 1995;22(4):210-6.

67. Anonymous. National Institutes of Health consensus development conference statement: Management of hepatitis C: 2002: June 10-12, 2002, revisions made September 12, 2002. http://consensus.nih.gov/cons/116/091202116cdc_statement.htm (accessed 11/12/03) ed: National Institutes of Health; 2002.

68. Schreiber GB, Busch MP, Kleinman SH, Korelitz JJ. The risk of transfusion-transmitted viral infections. The Retrovirus Epidemiology Donor Study. New England Journal of Medicine 1996;334(26):1685-90.

69. Booth JCL, O'Grady J, Neuberger J. Clinical guidelines on the management of hepatitis C. Gut 2001;49(Suppl 1):i1-i21.

70. Alter MJ. Prevention of spread of hepatitis C. Hepatology 2002;36:S93-S98.

71. Haley RW, Fischer RP. Commercial tattooing as a potentially important source of hepatitis C infection. Medicine 2001;80:134-151.

72. Balasekaran R, Bulterys M, Jamal MM, et al. A case-control study of risk factors for sporadic hepatitis C infection in the southwestern United States. American Journal of Gastroenterology 1999;96(5):1341-6.

73. Silverman AL, Sekhon JS, Saginaw SJ, Wiedbrauk D, Balasubramaniam M, Gordon SC. Tattoo application is not associated with an increased risk for chronic viral hepatitis. American Journal of Gastroenterology 2000;95(5):1312-5.

74. Conry-Cantilena C, Vanraden M, Gibble J, et al. Routes of infection, viremia, and liver disease in blood donors found to have hepatitis C virus infection. New England Journal of Medicine 1996;334:1691-6.

75. Murphy EL, Bryzman S, Williams AE, et al. Demographic determinants of hepatitis C virus seroprevalence among blood donors. JAMA 1996;275(13):995-1000.

76. Rosman AS, Waraich A, Galvin K, Casiano J, Paronetto F, Lieber CS. Alcoholism is associated with hepatitis C but not hepatitis B in an urban population. American Journal of Gastroenterology 1996;91(3):498-505.

77. Yawn B, Wollan P, Gazzuola L, Kim WR. Diagnosis and 10-year follow-up of a community-based hepatitis C cohort. Journal of Family Practice 2002;51(2):135-40.

78. Lapane KL, Jakiche AF, Sugano D, Weng CS, Carey WD. Hepatitis C infection risk analysis: who should be screened? Comparison of multiple screening strategies based on the National Hepatitis Surveillance Program. American Journal of Gastroenterology 1998;93(4):591-6.

79. Flamm SL, Parker RA, Chopra S. Risk factors associated with chronic hepatitis C virus infection: limited frequency of an unidentified source of transmission. American Journal of Gastroenterology 1998;93(4):597-600.

80. Colin C, Lanoir D, Touzet S, et al. Sensitivity and specificity of third-generation hepatitis C virus antibody detection assays: an analysis of the literature. Journal of Viral Hepatitis. 2001;8(2):87-95.

81. Uyttendaele S, Claeys H, Mertens W, Verhaert H, Vermylen C. Evaluation of third-generation screening and confirmatory assays for HCV antibodies. Vox Sanguinis 1994;66(2):122-9.

82. Stuyver L, Claeys H, Wyseur A, et al. Hepatitis C virus in a hemodialysis unit: molecular evidence for nosocomial transmission. Kidney International 1996;49(3):889-95.

83. Wolff C, Kleesiek K, Petersen N, Beyer J. Hepatitis C viremia in German blood donors: serum alanine aminotransferase is not a valid marker for screening. Transfusion 1994;34(4):361-2.

84. Lavanchy D, Steinmann J, Moritz A, Frei PC. Evaluation of a new automated third-generation anti-HCV enzyme immunoassay. Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis 1996;10(5):269-76.

85. Courouce AM, Janot C. Development of screening and confirmation tests for antibodies to hepatitis C virus. Current Studies in Hematology & Blood Transfusion 1994(61):36-48.

86. Courouce AM, Barin F, Botte C, et al. A comparative evaluation of the sensitivity of seven anti-hepatitis C virus screening tests. Vox Sanguinis 1995;69(3):213-6.

87. Huber KR, Sebesta C, Bauer K. Detection of common hepatitis C virus subtypes with a third-generation enzyme immunoassay. Hepatology 1996;24(3):471-3.

88. Busch MP, Watanabe KK, Smith JW, Hermansen SW, Thomson RA. False-negative testing errors in routine viral marker screening of blood donors. For the Retrovirus Epidemiology Donor Study. Transfusion 2000;40(5):585-9.

89. Prince AM, Scheffel JW, Moore B. A search for hepatitis C virus polymerase chain reaction-positive but seronegative subjects among blood donors with elevated alanine aminotransferase. Transfusion 1997;37(2):211-4.

90. Anonymous. Guidelines for laboratory testing and result reporting of antibody to hepatitis C virus. Morbidity & Mortality Weekly Report Recommendations & Reports 2003;52(RR-3):1-16.

91. Alberti A, Noventa F, Benvegnu L, Boccato S, Gatta A. Prevalence of liver disease in a population of asymptomatic persons with hepatitis C virus infection. Annals of Internal Medicine 2002;137:961-974.

92. Rodger AJ, Jolley D, Thompson SC, Lanigan A, Crofts N. The impact of diagnosis of hepatitis C virus on quality of life. Hepatology 1999;30(5):1299-301.

93. Coughlan BM, Sheehan JD, Carr A, Cockram AM, Crowe JP. Evaluation of a brief group-based psychological/educational (psych/ED) treatment programme for women with an iatrogenic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Gastroenterology 2001;129(Suppl 1):A568.

94. Gebo KA, Herlong HF, Torbenson MS, et al. Role of liver biopsy in management of chronic hepatitis C: a systematic review. Hepatology 2002;36:S161-S172.

95. Lauer GM, Walker, B. Medical Progress: Hepatitis C Virus Infection. New England Journal of Medicine 2001;345(1):41-52.

96. Anonymous. EASL International Consensus Conference on Hepatitis C. Paris, 26-28, February 1999, Consensus Statement. European Association for the Study of the Liver. Journal of Hepatology 1999;30(5):956-61.

97. Booth JC, Brown JL, Thomas HC. The management of chronic hepatitis C virus infection. Gut 1995;37(4):449-54.

98. Galmiche JP. French consensus conference on hepatitis C: screening and treatment. Gut 1998;42(6):892-8.

99. Bacon BR. Treatment of patients with hepatitis C and normal serum aminotransferase levels. Hepatology 2002;36:S179-84.

100. Muir AJ, Provenzale D. A descriptive evaluation of eligibility for therapy among veterans with chronic hepatitis C virus infection. Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology 2002;34(3):268-71.

101. Cawthorne CH, Rudat KR, Burton MS, et al. Limited success of HCV antiviral therapy in United States veterans. American Journal of Gastroenterology 2002;97(1):149-55.

102. Falck-Ytter Y, Kale H, Mullen KD, Sarbah SA, Sorescu L, McCullough AJ. Surprisingly small effect of antiviral treatment in patients with hepatitis C. Annals of Internal Medicine 2002;136(4):288-92.

103. Bravo AA, Sheth SG, Chopra S. Liver biopsy. New England Journal of Medicine 2001;344(7):495-500.

104. Garcia-Tsao G. Outpatient liver biopsy: how safe is it? Annals of Internal Medicine 1993;118(2):150-2.

105. Froehlich F, Lamy L, Fried M, Gonvers JJ. Practice and complications of liver biopsy. Digestive Diseases and Sciences 1993;38(8):1480-4.

106. Janes CH, Lindor KD. Outcomes of patients hospitalized for complications after outpatient liver biopsy. Annals of Internal Medicine 1993;118:96-8.

107. Gilmore IT, Burroughs A, Murray-Lyon IM, Williams R, Jenkins D, Hopkins A. Indications, methods, and outcomes of percutaneous liver biopsy in England and Wales. Gut 1995;36:437-41.

108. Cadranel JF, Rufat P, Degos F. Practices of liver biopsy in France: results of a prospective nationwide survey. Hepatology 2000;32:477-81.

109. McGill DB, Rakela J, Zinsmeister AR, Ott BJ. A 21-year experience with major hemorrhage after percutaneous liver biopsy. Gastroenterology 1990;99:1396-1400.

110. Vautier G, Scott B, Jenkins D. Liver biopsy: blind or guided? BMJ 1994;309:1455-6.

111. Saadeh S, Cammell G, Carey WD, Younossi Z, Barnes D, Easley K. The role of liver biopsy in chronic hepatitis C. Hepatology 2001;33:196-200.

112. Farrell RJ, Smiddy PF, Pilkington RM, et al. Guided versus blind liver biopsy for chronic hepatitis C: clinical benefits and costs. Journal of Hepatology 1999;30:580-7.

113. Pasha T, Gabriel S, Therneau T, Dickson ER, Lindor KD. Cost-effectiveness of ultrasound-guided liver biopsy. Hepatology 1998;27(5):1220-6.

114. Caturelli E, Giacobbe A, Facciorusso D, et al. Percutaneous biopsy in diffuse liver disease: increasing diagnostic yield and decreasing complication rate by routine ultrasound assessment of puncture site. American Journal of Gastroenterology 1996;91(7):1318-21.

115. Lindor KD, Bru C, Jorgensen RA, et al. The role of ultrasonography and automatic-needle biopsy in outpatient percutaneous liver biopsy. Hepatology 1996;23:1079-83.

116. Pawlotsky JM. Use and interpretation of virological tests for hepatitis C. Hepatology 2002;36:S65-73.

117. Hoofnagle JH, di Bisceglie AM. The treatment of chronic viral hepatitis. New England Journal of Medicine 1997;336(5):347-56.

118. Poynard T, Leroy V, Cohard M, et al. Meta-analysis of interferon randomized trials in the treatment of viral hepatitis C: effects of dose and duration. Hepatology 1996;24(4):778-89.

119. Kjaergard LL, Krogsgaard K, Gluud C. Interferon alfa with or without ribavirin for chronic hepatitis C: systematic review of randomised trials. BMJ 2001;323(7322):1151-5.

120. Chander G, Sulkowski MS, Jenckes MW, et al. Treatment of chronic hepatitis C: a systematic review. Hepatology 2002;36:S135-44.

121. Shepherd J, Waugh N, Hewitson P. Combination therapy (interferon alfa and ribavirin) in the treatment of chronic hepatitis C: a rapid and systematic review. Health Technology Assessment 2000;4(33):1-67.

122. Fried MW, Shiffman ML, Reddy KR, et al. Peginterferon Alfa-2a plus ribavirin for chronic hepatitis C virus infections. New England Journal of Medicine 2002;347(13):975-82.

123. Manns MP, McHutchison JG, Gordon SC, et al. Peginterferon alfa-2b plus ribavirin compared with interferon alfa-2b plus ribavirin for initial treatment of chronic hepatitis C: a randomised trial. Lancet 2001;358(9286):958-65.

124. Glue P, Rouzier-Panis R, Raffanel C, et al. A dose-ranging study of pegylated interferon alfa-2b and ribavirin in chronic hepatitis C. The Hepatitis C Intervention Therapy Group. Hepatology 2000;32(3):647-53.

125. Heathcote EJ, Shiffman ML, Cooksley WG, et al. Peginterferon alfa-2a in patients with chronic hepatitis C and cirrhosis. New England Journal of Medicine 2000;343(23):1673-80.

126. Lindsay KL, Trepo C, Heintges T, et al. A randomized, double-blind trial comparing pegylated interferon alfa-2b to interferon alfa-2b as initial treatment for chronic hepatitis C. Hepatology 2001;34(2):395-403.

127. Reddy KR, Wright TL, Pockros PJ, et al. Efficacy and safety of pegylated (40-kd) interferon alpha-2a compared with interferon alpha-2a in noncirrhotic patients with chronic hepatitis C. Hepatology 2001;33(2):433-8.

128. Zeuzem S, Feinman SV, Rasenack J, et al. Peginterferon alfa-2a in patients with chronic hepatitis C. New England Journal of Medicine 2000;343(23):1666-72.

129. Nishiguchi S, Shiomi S, Nakatani S, et al. Prevention of hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with chronic active hepatitis C and cirrhosis. Lancet 2001;357(9251):196-7.

130. Bernardinello E, Cavalletto L, Chemello L, et al. Long-term clinical outcome after beta-interferon therapy in cirrhotic patients with chronic hepatitis C. TVVH Study Group. Hepatogastroenterology 1999;46(30):3216-22.

131. Harris HE, Ramsay ME, Andrews N, Eldridge KP. Clinical course of hepatitis C virus during the first decade of infection: cohort study. BMJ 2002;324(7335):450-3.

132. Seeff LB, Miller RN, Rabkin CS, et al. 45-year follow-up of hepatitis C virus infection in healthy young adults. Annals of Internal Medicine 2000;132(2):105-11.

133. Davis Gl, Balart LA, Schiff ER, et al. Assessing health-related quality of life in chronic hepatitis C using the Sickness Impact Profile. Clinical Therapeutics 1994;16(2):334-43.

134. Zarski JP, Leroy V. counseling patients with hepatitis C. Journal of Hepatology 1999;31(Suppl 1):136-40.

135. Keeffe EB, Iwarson S, McMahon BJ, et al. Safety and immunogenicity of hepatitis A vaccine in patients with chronic liver disease. Hepatology 1998;27(3):881-6.

136. Vento S, Garofano T, Renzini C, et al. Fulminant hepatitis associated with hepatitis A virus superinfection in patients with chronic hepatitis C. New England Journal of Medicine 1998;338(5):286-90.

137. Hasle G, Hoel T, Jensenius M. Mortality of hepatitis A in adults with hepatitis C antibodies. Lancet 1998;351:1888.

138. Mele A, Tosti ME, Stroffolini T. Hepatitis associated with hepatitis A superinfection in patients with chronic hepatitis C. New England Journal of Medicine 1998;338(24):1771-2.

139. Nalpas B, Martin S, Fontaine H, Fabbro-Peray P, Brechot C, Pol S. Impact of medical recommendations on alcohol consumption in HCV positive patients. Journal of Hepatology 2001;35(2):312-3.

140. Ompad DC, Fuller CM, Vlahov D, Thomas DL, Strathdee SA. Lack of behavior change after disclosure of hepatitis C virus infection among young injection drug uses in Baltimore, Maryland. Clinical Infectious Diseases 2002;35(7):783-8.

141. Ikeda K, Saitoh S, Arase Y, et al. Effect of interferon therapy on hepatocellular carcinogenesis in patients with chronic hepatitis type C: A long-term observation study of 1,643 patients using statistical bias correction with proportional hazard analysis. Hepatology 1999;29(4):1124-30.

142. Bernstein D, Kleinman L, Barker CM, Revicki DA, Green J. Relationship of health-related quality of life to treatment adherence and sustained response in chronic hepatitis C patients. Hepatology 2002;35(3):704-8.

143. Bonkovsky HL, Woolley JM. Reduction of health-related quality of life in chronic hepatitis C and improvement with interferon therapy.The Consensus Interferon Study Group. Hepatology 1999;29(1):264-70.

144. McHutchison JG, Ware JE, Jr., Bayliss MS, et al. The effects of interferon alpha-2b in combination with ribavirin on health related quality of life and work productivity. Journal of Hepatology 2001;34(1):140-7.

145. Strader DB. Understudied populations with hepatitis C. Hepatology 2002;36:S226-36.

146. Schiff ER, de Medina M, Kahn RS. New perspectives in the diagnosis of hepatitis C. Seminars in Liver Disease 1999;19(Suppl 1):3-15.

147. Saito M, Hasegawa A, Kashiwakuma T, et al. Performance of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay system for antibodies to hepatitis C virus with two new antigens (c11/c7). Clinical Chemistry 1992;38(12):2434-9.

148. Brown D, Powell L, Morris A, et al. Improved diagnosis of chronic hepatitis C virus infection by detection of antibody to multiple epitopes: confirmation by antibody to synthetic oligopeptides. Journal of Medical Virology 1992;38(3):167-71.

149. Damen M, Zaaijer H, Cuypers HT, et al. Reliability of the third-generation recombinant immunoblot assay for hepatitis C virus. Transfusion 1995;35(9):745-9.

150. Dow BC, Buchanan I, Munro H, et al. Relevance of RIBA-3 supplementary test to HCV PCR positivity and genotypes for HCV confirmation of blood donors. Journal of Medical Virology 1996;49(2):132-6.

151. Pawlotsky JM, Bastie A, Pellet C, et al. Significance of indeterminate third-generation hepatitis C virus recombinant immunoblot assay. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 1996;34(1):80-3.

152. Icardi G, Ansaldi F, Bruzzone BM, et al. Novel approach to reduce the hepatitis C virus (HCV) window period: clinical evaluation of a new enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for HCV core antigen. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 2001;39(9):3110-4.

153. Widell A, Molnegren V, Pieksma F, Calmann M, Peterson J, Lee SR. Detection of hepatitis C core antigen in serum or plasma as a marker of hepatitis C viraemia in the serological window-phase. Transfusion Medicine 2002;12(2):107-13.

154. Dore GJ, Kaldor J, McCaughan GW. Systematic review of role of polymerase chain reaction in defining infectiousness among people infected with hepatitis C virus. BMJ 1997;315:333-41.

155. Alberti A, Morsica G, Chemello L, Cavalletto D, Noventa F, Pontisso P, et al. Hepatitis C viraemia and liver disease in symptom-free individuals with anti-HCV. Lancet 1992;340:697-9.

156. Prieto M, Olaso V, Verdu C, et al. Does the healthy hepatitis C virus carrier state really exist? An analysis using polymerase chain reaction. Hepatology 1995;22(2):413-7.

157. Montalto G, Zignego AL, Ruggeri MI, et al. Serum HCV-RNA and liver histologic findings in patients with long-term normal transaminases. Digestive Diseases & Sciences 1997;42(8):1703-7.

158. Poynard T, Ratziu V, Charlotte F, Goodman Z, McHutchison J, Albrecht J. Rates and risk factors of liver fibrosis progression in patients with chronic hepatitis C. Journal of Hepatology 2001;34(5):730-9.

159. Puoti C, Stati T, Magrini A. Serum HCV RNA titer does not predict the severity of liver damage in HCV carriers with normal aminotransferase levels. Liver 1999;19(2):104-9.

160. Shakil AO, Conry-Cantilena C, Alter HJ, et al. Volunteer blood donors with antibody to hepatitis C virus: clinical, biochemical, virologic, and histologic features. Annals of Internal Medicine 1995;123:330-7.

161. McCormick SE, Goodman ZD, Maydonovitch CL, Sjogren MH. Evaluation of liver histology, ALT elevation, and HCV RNA titer in patients with chronic hepatitis C. American Journal of Gastroenterology 1996;91(8):1516-22.

162. Reichard O, Norkrans G, Fryden A, Braconier JH, Sonnerborg A, Weiland O. Comparison of 3 quantitative HCV RNA assays—accuracy of baseline viral load to predict treatment outcome in chronic hepatitis C. Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases 1998;30(5):441-6.

163. Yokosuka O, Kojima H. Imazeki F. Tagawa M. Saisho H. Tamatsukuri S. Omata M. Spontaneous negativation of serum hepatitis C virus RNA is a rare event in type C chronic liver diseases: analysis of HCV RNA in 320 patients who were followed for more than 3 years. Journal of Hepatology 1999;31(3):394-9.

164. Zaaijer HL, Cuypers HT, Reesink HW, Winkel IN, Gerken G, Lelie PN. Reliability of polymerase chain reaction for detection of hepatitis C virus. Lancet 1993;341(8847):722-4.

165. Pawlotsky JM. Measuring hepatitis C viremia in clinical samples: can we trust the assays? Hepatology 1997;26(1):1-4.

166. Long GS, Bacon BR, Bisceglie AM. Interpreting serologic tests for hepatitis C virus infection: balancing cost and clarity. Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine 1996;63(5):264-8.

167. Gretch DR. Diagnostic tests for hepatitis C. Hepatology 1997;26(3 Suppl 1):43S-47S.

168. Sakugawa H, Nakasone H, Nakayoshi T, et al. High proportion of false positive reactions among donors with anti-HCV antibodies in a low prevalence area. Journal of Medical Virology 1995;46(4):334-8.

169. Ishak K, Baptista A, Bianchi L, et al. Histological grading and staging of chronic hepatitis. Journal of Hepatology 1995;22:696-9.

170. Bedossa P, Poynard T. An algorithm for the grading of activity in chronic hepatitis C. The METAVIR Cooperative Study Group. Hepatology 1996;24(2):289-93.

171. Knodell RG, Ishak KG, Black WC, et al. Formulation and application of a numerical scoring system for assessing histological activity in asymptomatic chronic active hepatitis. Hepatology 1981;1:431-5.

172. Jonas MM. Challenges in the treatment of hepatitis C in children. Clinics in Liver Disease 2001;5(4):1063-71.

173. Zanetti AR, Tanzi E, Paccagnini S, et al. Mother-to-infant transmission of hepatitis C virus. Lombardy Study Group on Vertical HCV Transmission. Lancet 1995;345(8945):289-91.

174. Tajiri H, Miyoshi Y, Funada S, et al. Prospective study of mother-to-infant transmission of hepatitis C virus. Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal 2001;20(1):10-4.

175. Conte D, Fraquelli M, Prati D, Colucci A, Minola E. Prevalence and clinical course of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and rate of HCV vertical transmission in a cohort of 15,250 pregnant women. Hepatology 2000;31(3):751-5.

176 Gibb DM, Goodall RL, Dunn DT, et al. Mother-to-child transmission of hepatitis C virus: evidence for preventable peripartum transmission. Lancet 2000;356(9233):904-7.

177. Sanchez-Quijano A, Andreu J, Gavilan F, et al. Influence of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection on the natural course of chronic parenterally acquired hepatitis C. European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases 1995;14(11):949-53.

178. Furusyo N, Hayashi J, Kanamoto-Tanaka Y, et al. Liver damage in hemodialysis patients with hepatitis C virus viremia: a prospective 10-year study. Digestive Diseases & Sciences 2000;45(11):2221-8.

179. Rostaing L, Rumeau JL, Cisterne JM, Izopet J, Chabannier MH, Durand D. Liver histology in renal transplant patients after more than 10 years of hepatitis C virus infection. Transplantation Proceedings 1996;28(5):2836-7.

180. Kliem V, van den Hoff U, Brunkhorst R, et al. The long-term course of hepatitis C after kidney transplantation. Transplantation 1996;62(10):1417-21.

181. Anonymous. National Institutes of Health Consensus Development Conference Panel statement: management of hepatitis C. Hepatology 1997;26(3 Suppl 1):2S-10S.

Return to Contents
Proceed to Next Section

 


USPSTF Program Office   540 Gaither Road, Rockville, MD 20850