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References

  1. U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Guide to Clinical Preventive Services, 2nd ed. Washington, DC: Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion; 1996.
  2. Hartman KE, Hall SA, Nanda K, Boggess JF, Zolnoun D. Screening for Cervical Cancer. Systematic Evidence Review. No. 25. (Prepared by the Research Triangle Institute-University of North Carolina Evidence-based Practice Center under contract No. 290-97-0011). Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. January 2002. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/bookshelf/br.fcgi?book=es25.
  3. Martin-Hirsch P, Lilford R, Jarvis G, Kitchener HC. Efficacy of cervical-smear collection devices: a systematic review and meta-analysis [published erratum appears in Lancet 2000 Jan 29;355(9201):414]. Lancet 1999;354(9192):1763-1770.
  4. Smith RA, Cokkinides V, von Eschenbach AC, et al. American Cancer Society Guideline for the Early Detection of Cervical Neoplasia and Cancer. CA Cancer J Clin 2002;52(1):8-22.
  5. Hildesheim A, Hadjimichael O, Schwartz PE, et al. Risk factors for rapid-onset cervical cancer. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1999;180(3 Pt 1):571-577.
  6. Janerich DT, Hadjimichael O, Schwartz PE, et al. The screening histories of women with invasive cervical cancer, Connecticut. Am J Public Health 1995;85(6):791-794.
  7. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Guidelines for Women's Health Care. 2nd ed. Washington, DC: ACOG;2002: 121-134, 140-141.
  8. Mitchell HS, Giles GG. Cancer diagnosis after a report of negative cervical cytology. Med J Aust 1996;164(5):270-273.
  9. Sigurdsson K. Trends in cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia in Iceland through 1995: evaluation of targeted age groups and screening intervals. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 1999;78(6):486-492.
  10. American Cancer Society. Cancer facts and figures, 2002. Atlanta: American Cancer Society, 2002. Accessed at http://www.cancer.org/docroot/STT/stt_0.asp on November 12, 2002.
  11. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Healthy People 2010: Understanding and Improving Health. 2nd ed. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, November 2000.
  12. de Vet HC, Sturmans F, Knipschild PG. The role of cigarette smoking in the etiology of cervical dysplasia. Epidemiology 1994;5(6):631-633.
  13. Winkelstein W. Smoking and cervical cancer — current status: a review. Am J Epidemiol 1990;131(6):945-957.
  14. Lyon JL, Gardner JW, West DW, Stanish WM, Hebertson RM. Smoking and carcinoma in situ of the uterine cervix. Am J Public Health 1983;73(5):558-562.
  15. International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Summaries and Evaluations: Human Papillomaviruses. Lyons: IARC; 1995;64. Available at http://www.inchem.org/documents/iarc/iarc/iarc782.htm. Accessed November 13, 2002.
  16. Bosch FX, Manos MM, Munoz N, et al. Prevalence of human papillomavirus in cervical cancer: a worldwide perspective. International biological study on cervical cancer (IBSCC) Study Group. J Natl Cancer Inst 1995;87(11):796-802.
  17. Jacobs MV, Snijders PJ, van den Brule AJ, Helmerhorst TJ, Meijer CJ, Walboomers JM. A general primer GP5+/GP6(+)-mediated PCR-enzyme immunoassay method for rapid detection of 14 high-risk and 6 low-risk human papillomavirus genotypes in cervical scrapings. J Clin Microbiol 1997;35(3):791-795.
  18. McCrory DC, Mather DB, Bastian L. Evaluation of Cervical Cytology: Evidence Report/Technology Assessment No. 5. (Prepared by Duke University under Contract No. 290-97-0014.) AHCPR Publication No. 99-E010. Rockville, MD: Agency for Health Care Policy and Research. February 1999. Available at http://www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/epcindex.htm. Accessed November 25, 2002.
  19. Cuzick J, Beverley E, Ho L, et al. HPV testing in primary screening of older women. Br J Cancer 1999;81(3):554-558.
  20. Kulasingam SL, Hughes JP, Kiviat NB et al. Evaluation of human papillomavirus testing in primary screening for cervical abnormalities: comparison of sensitivity, specificity, and frequency of referral. JAMA 2002;288(14):1749-57.
  21. Sawaya GF, Grady D, Kerlikowske K et al. The positive predictive value of cervical smears in previously screened postmenopausal women: the Heart and Estrogen/progestin Replacement Study (HERS). Ann Intern Med 2000;133(12):942-50.
  22. Fox J, Remington P, Layde P, Klein G. The effect of hysterectomy on the risk of an abnormal screening Papanicolaou test result. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1999;180(5):1104-1109.
  23. Pearce K, Haefner H, Sarwar S, Nolan T. Cytopathological findings on vaginal Papanicolaou smears after hysterectomy for benign gynecological disease. N Engl J Med 1996(21);335:1559-1562.
  24. Ries LA, Kosary CL, Hankey BF, et al., eds.: SEER Cancer Statistics Review 1973-1995. Bethesda, Md: National Cancer Institute, 1998.
  25. International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Working Group on the Evaluation of Cervical Cancer Screening Programmes. Screening for squamous cervical cancer: duration of low risk after negative results of cervical cytology and its implication for screening policies. Br Med J 1986;293(6548):659-664.
  26. Sasieni PD, Cuzick J, Lynch-Farmery E. Estimating the efficacy of screening by auditing smear histories of women with and without cervical cancer. The National Co-ordinating Network for Cervical Screening Working Group. Br J Cancer 1996;73(8):1001-1005.
  27. Sawaya GF, Kerlikowske K, Lee NC, Gildengorin G, Washington AE. Frequency of cervical smear abnormalities within 3 years of normal cytology. Obstet Gynecol 2000;96(2):219-23.
  28. American Academy of Family Physicians. Summary of Policy Recommendations for Periodic Health Examinations, December, 2001. Available at http://www.aafp.org/exam.xml. Exit Disclaimer Accessed January 23, 2002.
  29. Hawkes AP, Kronenberger CB, MacKenzie TD et al. American College of Preventive Medicine. Practice Policy Statement: Cervical Cancer Screening. Am J Prev Med 1996;12(5):342-4. Available at http://www.acpm.org/cervical.htm. Accessed January 23, 2002.
  30. American Medical Association. Cancer screening guidelines. Available at www.ama-assn.org. Accessed September 6, 2001.
  31. Morrison BJ. Screening for Cervical Cancer. In: Canadian Task Force on the Periodic Health Examination. Canadian Guide to Clinical Preventive Health Care. Ottawa: Health Canada, 1994; 870-881. (Reviewed in 1999). Available at www.ctfphc.org/Full_Text_printable/Ch73full.htm. Accessed January 23, 2002.
  32. American Academy of Pediatrics, Committee on Psychosocial Aspects of Child and Family Health. Guidelines for Health Supervision III. Elk Grove Village, IL: American Academy of Pediatrics; 1997.

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Members of the Task Force

Members of the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force are Alfred O. Berg, M.D., M.P.H., Chair, USPSTF (Professor and Chair, Department of Family Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA); Janet D. Allan, Ph.D., R.N., Vice-chair, USPSTF (Dean, School of Nursing, University of Maryland Baltimore, Baltimore, MD); Paul Frame, M.D. (Tri-County Family Medicine, Cohocton, NY, and Clinical Professor of Family Medicine, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY); Charles J. Homer, M.D., M.P.H. (Executive Director, National Initiative for Children's Healthcare Quality, Boston, MA)*; Mark S. Johnson, M.D., M.P.H. (Professor of Family Medicine, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey-New Jersey Medical School, Newark, NJ); Jonathan D. Klein, M.D., M.P.H. (Associate Professor, Department of Pediatrics, University of Rochester School of Medicine, Rochester, NY); Tracy A. Lieu, M.D., M.P.H. (Associate Professor, Department of Ambulatory Care and Prevention, Harvard Pilgrim Health Care and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA)*; C. Tracy Orleans, Ph.D. (Senior Scientist and Senior Program Officer, The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, Princeton, NJ); Jeffrey F. Peipert, M.D., M.P.H. (Director of Research, Women and Infants' Hospital, Providence, RI)*; Nola J. Pender, Ph.D., R.N. (Professor Emeritus, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI)*; Albert L. Siu, M.D., M.S.P.H. (Professor of Medicine, Chief of Division of General Internal Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY); Steven M. Teutsch, M.D., M.P.H. (Senior Director, Outcomes Research and Management, Merck & Company, Inc., West Point, PA); Carolyn Westhoff, M.D., M.Sc. (Professor of Obstetrics and Gynecology and Professor of Public Health, Columbia University, New York, NY); and Steven H. Woolf, M.D., M.P.H. (Professor, Department of Family Practice and Department of Preventive and Community Medicine, Virginia Commonwealth University, Fairfax, VA).

* Member of the USPSTF at the time this recommendation was finalized.

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Contact the Task Force

Address correspondence to: Chair, U.S. Preventive Services Task Force; c/o Project Director, USPSTF; 540 Gaither Road; Rockville, MD 20850..

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Available Products

This recommendation and rationale statement, plus complete information on which this statement is based, including evidence tables and references, are available on the USPSTF Web site at http://www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org.

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AHRQ Publication No. 03-515A
Current as of January 2003


Internet Citation:

U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Screening for Cervical Cancer: Recommendations and Rationale. AHRQ Publication No. 03-515A. January 2003. http://www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/3rduspstf/cervcan/cervcanrr.htm


 


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