U.S. Preventive Services Task Force banner
U.S. Preventive Services Task Force

You Are Here: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force > Topic Index > Screening: Bladder Cancer > Recommendation Statement


Screening for Bladder Cancer in Adults

Recommendation Statement


This statement summarizes the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommendations on screening for bladder cancer in adults and the supporting scientific evidence, and updates the 1996 recommendations contained in the Guide to Clinical Preventive Services, Second Edition.1


Summary of Recommendation

  • The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommends against routine screening for bladder cancer in adults.

    Rating: D Recommendation.

    Rationale: The USPSTF found fair evidence that screening with available tests can detect bladder cancer in asymptomatic individuals. The potential benefit of screening would be small, at best, for the following reasons: there is fair evidence that many of the cancers detected by screening have a low tendency to progress to invasive disease; there is a relatively low overall prevalence of asymptomatic bladder cancer that would eventually lead to important clinical consequences; and there is limited evidence that early treatment of bladder cancer detected through screening improves long-term health outcomes. The potential harms of screening are at least small: screening tests have a low positive predictive value and yield many false positive results, leading to unnecessary invasive procedures. As a result, the USPSTF concluded that the potential harms of screening for bladder cancer outweigh any potential benefits.


Contents

Background
Clinical Considerations
References
Members of the Task Force
Contact the Task Force
Available Products
Copyright and Electronic Dissemination

Task Force Ratings
Strength of Recommendations and Quality of Evidence

Background

In 1996, the Task Force recommended against screening for bladder cancer with microscopic urinalysis, urine dipstick, or urine cytology in asymptomatic persons (a D Recommendation).1 Since then, the Task Force criteria to rate the strength of the evidence have changed.2 Therefore, this recommendation statement has been updated and revised based on the current USPSTF methodology and rating of the strength of the evidence.

Return to Contents

Clinical Considerations

Return to Contents

References

1. U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Guide to Clinical Preventive Services, 2nd ed. Washington, DC: Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion; 1996.

2. Harris RP, Helfand M, Woolf SH, Lohr KN, Mulrow CD, Teutsch SM, Atkins D, for the Methods Work Group, Third U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Current methods of the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force: a review of the process. Am J Prev Med 2001;20(3S):21-35.

3. Screening for bladder cancer: update of the evidence for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. 2004. Available at http://www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org.

Return to Contents

Members of the Task Force

Members of the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force* are Alfred O. Berg, M.D., M.P.H., Chair (Professor and Chair, Department of Family Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA); Janet D. Allan, Ph.D., R.N., C.S., Vice-chair (Dean, School of Nursing, University of Maryland Baltimore, Baltimore, MD); Ned Calonge, M.D., M.P.H. (Acting Chief Medical Officer, Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment, Denver, CO); Paul Frame, M.D. (Tri-County Family Medicine, Cohocton, NY, and Clinical Professor of Family Medicine, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY); Joxel Garcia, M.D., M.B.A. (Deputy Director, Pan American Health Organization, Washington, DC); Russell Harris, M.D., M.P.H. (Associate Professor of Medicine, Sheps Center for Health Services Research, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC); Mark S. Johnson, M.D., M.P.H. (Professor of Family Medicine, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey-New Jersey Medical School, Newark, NJ); Jonathan D. Klein, M.D., M.P.H. (Associate Professor, Department of Pediatrics, University of Rochester School of Medicine, Rochester, NY); Carol Loveland-Cherry, Ph.D., R.N. (Executive Associate Dean, School of Nursing, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI); Virginia A. Moyer, M.D., M.P.H. (Professor, Department of Pediatrics, University of Texas at Houston, Houston, TX); C. Tracy Orleans, Ph.D. (Senior Scientist, The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, Princeton, NJ); Albert L. Siu, M.D., M.S.P.H. (Professor and Chairman, Brookdale Department of Geriatrics and Adult Development, Mount Sinai Medical Center, New York, NY); Steven M. Teutsch, M.D., M.P.H. (Executive Director, Outcomes Research and Management, Merck & Company, Inc., West Point, PA); Carolyn Westhoff, M.D., M.Sc. (Professor of Obstetrics and Gynecology and Professor of Public Health, Columbia University, New York, NY); and Steven H. Woolf, M.D., M.P.H. (Professor, Department of Family Practice and Department of Preventive and Community Medicine and Director of Research, Department of Family Practice, Virginia Commonwealth University, Fairfax, VA).

* Member of the USPSTF at the time this recommendation was finalized. For a list of current Task Force members, go to http://www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/about.htm.

Return to Contents

Contact the Task Force

Address correspondence to: Ned Calonge, M.D., M.P.H., Chair, U.S. Preventive Services Task Force, c/o Program Director, USPSTF, 540 Gaither Road, Rockville, MD 20850.

Return to Contents

Available Products

The complete information on which this statement is based, including evidence tables and references, is available in the brief update3 on this topic on the USPSTF Web site (http://www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org).

Disclaimer: Recommendations made by the USPSTF are independent of the U.S. Government. They should not be construed as an official position of AHRQ or the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.

Return to Contents

Copyright and Electronic Dissemination

This document is in the public domain within the United States.

Return to Contents

Current as of June 2004


Internet Citation:

U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Screening for Bladder Cancer in Adults: Recommendation Statement. June 2004. http://www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/3rduspstf/bladder/blacanrs.htm


 


USPSTF Program Office   540 Gaither Road, Rockville, MD 20850